2016, Vol. 17. #3-4


SOIL MONITORING /МОНІТОРИНГ ҐРУНТІВ


 

Medvedev V. V. Methodology of effective monitoring of a soil cover (on the basis of the analysis of 25-years European experience)

Медведев В. В. Методологія ефективного моніторингу ґрунтового покриву (на основі аналізу 25-річного європейського досвіду)

               

DOI:10.15421/041609

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The purpose of the article is to state the most essential methodological aspects of monitoring of a soil cover which is spent in the Europe during more than 25 years, to approach the Ukrainian model of monitoring to European and to formulate requirements to the organization of monitoring in Ukraine which will guarantee its efficiency. According to the European concept under monitoring the existential system of supervision over soil properties on constant platforms with use of the wide program of indicators with the purpose of creation of information-analytical databases, divisions into districts and allocation of problem territories, the forecast of soil development (including by means of pedotransfer modelling), a correcting of the contents and intensity of agricultural activity, planning of soil-saving actions, improvements of granting process to farmers, activization of work with mass media and in other purposes means. Advantage has regular distribution of points which meets the requirements of geostatistic analysis and geoinformatics is better and is better considers spatial features of soil characteristics which are important in mapping.

Organizational principles of construction of monitoring: independence of departments influence; simple 2-unit structure (regional laboratory – the centre of information-analytical), the coordinated and approved normative estimated base; coordination with supervision over other components of an environment; financing from the state budget; regular informing on results power structures and the public. Monitoring is meaningful only when with its help a long number of the equidistant supervision received mainly in a regular network is formed. Only under these conditions probably objective estimation and the reliable forecast of negative changes in soils, and also contours of territories with problem characteristics are precisely defined. Accordingly means for their elimination are economically spent. Monitoring should be spent at the greatest possible quantity of definitions of display soil properties in modes in situ and on-line. Mainly by results of monitoring a soil cover in the majority of the European countries bases of a new agrarian policy protection of an environment and active support of soil-saving technologies to which interest increases in the European countries have been certain is. In the European countries the atmosphere of assistance to monitoring was generated and it is considered, that without high-quality information system about a soil cover to create comfortable conditions of a life and a clean environment is impossible. In Ukraine it is necessary to organize monitoring of a soil cover on the basis of the newest program, mathematical tool, and cartographical bases, agreed with the European experience.

In connection with intensive use the soil cover of Ukraine quickly changes, the increasing urgency is got with processes of degradation. Therefore the control of changes and over its base formation of corresponding programs on stay of degradation and reproduction of soil fertility – very actual problem.
Key words: soil monitoring, the European experience, actual problems
 

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EVOLUTION AND GENESIS OF SOILS / ЕВОЛЮЦІЯ ТА ГЕНЕЗИС ҐРУНТІВ


 

Dmytruk Y. M. Some aspects of a multidimensional analysis of the evolution of ecological-geochemical soil state

Дмитрук Ю. М. Окремі аспекти багатовимірного аналізу еволюції еколого-геохімічного статусу ґрунтів

               

DOI:10.15421/041610

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Soil saturation index and its calculating are demonstrating multicollinear correlations between ecological-geochemical soil state and environmental circumstances. There are wood ecosystems on the research area with Phaeozem, Luvisol, Retisol and Fluvisol. We have also studied the buried soil. Their burials occurred as a result of natural processes (about 5000 BP) and as a result of human impact (about 1000 BP). Age of separate genetic horizons (from 360±50 to 1870±160 ВР) indicates soils genesis during the last stage of the Holocene – Subatlantic. In our opinion the dynamics of the climate during last stage of the Holocene is the main cause of the complex structure of the soil cover on quite small area (5 km2). Second reason is difficult geomorphological environment (rough topography).

On the basis of factor analysis proved efficiency of soil saturation index by trace elements: analytical work only with the indicated index reveals an unambiguous reduce the number of determining factors (up to two) and, thus, the proportion of the variance, which is determined by two factors is 100 %. While the using in the analysis of the total content, or a mobile forms of trace elements, or of some and the others together as a combined using of content mobile forms and their mobility will lead to an increase factor up to four and the simultaneous decrease in the proportion of the variance which is due to these factors to 74–88 %.

We did not find decisive influence of any factor on saturation of studied soil types by trace elements. There is always a combination of processes that contribute to the accumulation of trace elements and processes of their migration. There are illuvial and lower transition to soil parent material horizons of the background content of trace elements for all investigated soil except Fluvisol (S-1). Belong to actual places of trace elements accumulation, which is generally quite small are some lower soil horizons both buried soils and lower transition to horizon of soil parent material (in soil R-3). Thus, the upper parts of the soils which were formed during the last centuries (780 years of age to today dated) are characterized by dissipation of most of trace elements. The genetic features of Fluvisol (S-1) have confirmed very high correlation. These features are the result of the genesis of this soil under the influence both soil and sedimentation processes. This is well illustrated in the analysis of the structure of the soil profile, which have characterized by stratification (during soil formation has not resulted in the development of any diagnostic subsurface horizon) genetic horizons and the presence of buried after the accumulation of alluvial material as a humus, as a transitional horizons. Perhaps, it is partly confirmed by the radiocarbon analysis, this soil should be regarded as younger age, which obviously explains persistent inflow of fresh materials. All other soils including the buried ones were formed under various elementary soil formation processes. These processes have replacing each other in time did not stop, and the normal evolution of the soil profile took place to bottom, in contrast to the fluvisol which evolution was to upper as have happened by the fresh alluvial and probably deluvial sedimentation.

Recognizing of the «normal» soil genesis process as a basis for the formation of zonal soils in the Holocene, we are interpreting Factor 1, conducted by the context of factor analysis, as the environmental conditions for such soil formation. The results of factor analysis regarding to ecological-geochemical soil state Factor 1 should be considered as the basic parameters of soils (soil organic matter, pH, indicators of soil absorbing complex, mineralogical composition and particle size distribution). Under this condition Factor 2 is associated with the processes (fluvial, sedimentation, erosion) denudation, or transfer and accumulation of different material that would cause disturbance "normal" soil genesis. For that reason ecological-geochemical soil state is determined by soil formation factors for a specific time stage and dominant conditions for some processes.
Key words: ecological-geochemical soil state, factor and cluster analysis, trace elements, soil saturation index, evolution
 

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Samokhvalova V. L., Skrylnyk Y. V., Lopushnyak V. I., Shedey L. О.,  Samokhvalova P. A. Forecasting the levels of chemical elements content  in soils of different genesis for the assessment of their eco-energy status

Самозвалова В.Л., Скрильник Є. В., Лопушняк В. I., Шедєй Л. О.,  Самохвалова П.A. Прогнозування рівнів вмісту хімічних елементів у ґрунтах різного генезису для оцінки еколого-енергетичного статусу

DOI:10.15421/041611

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Grounded the new elaborated method for predicting of trace elements (TE) and heavy metals (HM) content in the soils of different genesis, which was elaborated by analysis the indicators parameters of their organic matter and energy characteristics in different natural-climatic zones of Ukraine, also of contaminated and intensive fertilizer soils. The method aims for the assessment of soils ecological-energy state due to the installation of the new natural relations of indicators humus, energy and elemental status of soils of different types, as a result, expanding the range of diagnostic indicators with identifing their paired combinations and simultaneously increasing of informativeness, accuracy, express testing of chemical elements (TE, HM) predicting levels, energy and humus state of soils to predict and ecological regulation of their quality.

The essence of the elaborated utility model – by the identify of new patterns of soil properties indicators and receive four matching pairs of humus (CGA/CFA, Ctotal), elemental and energy state (calorific value of humus, the reserves of energy in the soil layer of 0–20 cm) as soil indicators with the using of mathematical-statistical analysis of the obtained regression equations for the accurate determination is predicted the TE and HM content in soils of different types of background conditions, with the distribution algorithm of the method for different soil types in certain climate zones in the conditions of technogenic pollution and technological load, risk and the presence of man-made pollution to make timely management decisions. Elaborated method ensures the rapidity of the assessment and improves the accuracy of the TE/HM status prediction, energy and humus state of soils of different genesis with the identification of soils ecological differences to predict their quality by assessment of ecological functions for the ranking of energy intensity indicators of the soil.

The method is applicable in the environmental regulation of TE and HM content, regulation of the loads (technogenic, technological) on a soil system, agroecology to address issues of biological agriculture, bio-energy and energy of soil formation; monitoring the quality of humus and the status TE and the dangers of excess accumulation of HM, in the soil humus indicators and /or energy state; efficient environmental management of soils, both in background conditions and with different anthropogenic impacts and in the research practice. Grounded the method was examined on the of soils simples in different natural-climatic zones of Ukraine, contaminated soils in Kharkiv, Donetsk and Lugansk regions, and intensive fertilizer (organo-mineral, organic and mineral system of fertilizers) of soils in Kiev, Kharkiv, Poltava and Lviv region.

Key words: soil, trace elements, heavy metals, energy capacity, the calorific value of humus, the reserves of energy in the layer 0–20 cm, technogenic pollution, technological load, method, prediction, matching pair of indicators
 

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Kholodna A. S. Soil factors of floodplain soils that limit growth of energy crops

Холодна А. С. Ґрунтові чинники заплавних ґрунтів, які лімітують зростання енергетичних культур     

               

DOI:10.15421/041612

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Nowadays it is hard to find a country with a big number of lands, which are non-used in any sphere of production. Taking into account hard ecological situation on the planet, each year more and more countries join to zero waste production. The agricultural branch is not an exception.

Searching and creation of renewable energy sources are the main subjects of study for scientists in many fields of science. Starting from the 70s in Sweden government implemented the production of renewable energy. That energy based on burning the products of plant origin. At this period on the planet oil crises was increasing. This fact motivated scientists and businessmen for searching chip and effective energy sources. One of such sources is the biomass of fast-growing plant species which can be successfully recycled into biofuel.

Renewable energy production in Ukraine is only on the first phase of development. A major limiting factor is the issue of determining the eligibility criteria of soils on which one can place the plantation of energy crops. It is noted that there is a possibility of growing energy crops on hydromorphic soils of floodplains, which are not used in traditional farming and forestry. Determining of soil limiting factors that can affect the growth of energy crops was conducted in the floodplain of river Vilhovatka, Novo-Vodolazhskiy district, Kharkiv region in 2016. Researches of the development and growth of energy crops (energy willow and giant miscanthus) were held on the meadow alluvial hard loamy soil and on meadow-marsh alluvial hard loamy soil. These soils by their genesis belong to azonal ones. High developed accumulative processes, which serve for organic and both macro and microelements conglomeration, are the specialty of their soil formation. Specific acid-base regime is inherent for hydromorfic soils. It’s caused by their periodical or constant water logging. For both soils the parent rock is an oxbow alluvium. The level of ground water occurrence was installed by drilling in spring, summer and fall.

Energy willow – is one of the willow species that is processed for solid fuel. The usage of hydromorphic soils for willow planting has good perspectives. These soils can’t be used in agriculture without drainage. Here lies a clear parallel and duality of energy willow – the nature of its cultivation is more similar to food crops, but in contrast, willow grows on typical forest soils. In addition it can be mentioned that willow plantations have been used as a factor of preventing erosion for a long time already. The plants develop strong root system that allows consolidating river banks, gullies and ravines. Giant miscanthus – is a perennial grass that in botanical features reminds cane. The benefits of growing this crop lie not only in its growing for energy needs. Giant miscanthus has the following characteristics: tolerance to almost all types of soils; resistance to salinity (which is important in terms of its possible growth on alluvial-meadow saline soils); ability to grow on heavy soils; the ability to produce large amounts of biomass, which is relatively easy to collect and process with the existing technology and, of course, it’s ability for significantly improving of the environmental situation in forest landscapes.

The paper presents the results of studies of the establishment of factors that affect the growth of energy crops in flooded soils. It was found that the main limiting factors are: the level of occurrence of groundwater and the concentration of heavy metals. Depending on the type of floodplain soils the level of groundwater occurrence varies considerably. This factor generally determines the character of the growth of the studied crops. Once again it was confirmed that the floodplain soils contain high concentrations of iron, including ferrous (Fe2 +) and oxide (Fe3+) forms. It is shown that the form of ferrous iron in high quantities is a limiting factor for normal growth and development of energy plants.

On the meadow alluvial soil of the central floodplain energy crops grew much better (especially energy willow) than in the meadow-marsh soil of the terrace floodplain. Giant Miscanthus showed better stability, compared to energy willow, to its growing conditions. Also the article deals with the issue of energy willow phytoremediation ability, through which it is possible to partially solve the problem of some soils’ contamination with heavy metals.

Key words: floodplain, energy crops, energy willow, giant miscanthus, heavy metals, phytoremediation
 

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SOIL PROTECTION / ОХОРОНА ҐРУНТІВ


Chornyy S. G., Volosheniuk A. V. Evaluation of wind erosion protective efficiency No-till  technology in southern Ukraine steppe conditions

Чорний С. Г., Волошенюк А. В. Оцінка протидефляційної ефективності технології No-till в умовах південного степу України

               

DOI: 10.15421/041613

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The aim of the research was to the efficiency wind erosion control of farming system «no-till» (NT) for conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine. The research was conducted at heavy load southern chornozem in the crop rotation «pea – winter (spring) wheat – sorghum – mustard». In field experiment two options of processing of the soil (traditional and minimum) and NT were studied. Options aggregate of surface soil (0–5 cm), the weight of crop residues and projective covering the soil surface were determined. Research field was equipped by meteorological station and field’s wind erosion dust-meter.

The efficiency wind erosion control by NT was evaluated in three directions: the presence of dangerous wind erosion period (February–April) a certain amount of plant residues, that protect of soil surface from extreme winds (1); presence during this period of high values of «random» surface roughness of the soil, which reduces the strength of the wind in ground layer of air (2) and values of soil wind erodibility index (3).

Evaluation promises more effective in terms of opening up the soil surface crop residues reveals that NT fully meets the criterion of preserving (erosion control) technology – projective cover ground in a dangerous deflationary period is an average of three years of research on the crops of spring wheat – 37.9 % for sorghum crops – 71.1 % and on crops of mustard – 60.2 %. An important indicator of the erosion control efficiency of soil tillage is percentage of vertically oriented surface plant residues. Unbroken soil surface tillage after harvesting will have the maximum amount of such residues. Analysis of these studies show that when used NT observed maximum value of this parameter – 35–55 %, more than that in other tillage. So the version with traditional soil tillage this parameter does not exceed 5 %, and versions with minimal system soil tillage – 30 %.

Estimation of effectiveness of soil protection NT via a «random» surface roughness also shows a high ability wind erosion control this technology. At the same time, it should be stated that the presence of high «random» roughness autumn plowing deep plowed fields, despite the fact that the surface of the soil in the case of poorly protected plant residues.

The main index of soil wind erodibility is the fraction greater than 1 mm, the so-called «lumpiness». It is known, lumpiness indicator correlate with various other soil wind erodibility indicators, in particular, the mechanical strength of soil aggregates, containing wind erosion fraction by < 0.25 mm and wind erodibility indicators there were obtained in portable wind tunnel. Intensive plowing of the soil leads to formation of a surface of the soil with high resistance by the strong winds in the fall (lumpiness – 70–90 %). It is connected with specific mechanisms of formation of soil structure. Plowing of solonetzic chernozems, especially after dry summer and an early autumn, leads to formation of soil structure units of the larger sizes. But during the winter of lumpiness by all options of researches gradually decreases, what is explained, first of all, by action on soil units of the procedures «melting» – «freezing» that, in turn, is function from the number of transitions of temperature of the soil through 0 °C. There is a destruction of soil aggregates and dispersion of the soil, in the conditions of an unstable temperature schedule in the winter, that is a consequence of warming of climate when in the afternoon of air temperature and the soil positive, and at night the soil freezes. At the same time, when the surface of the soil during the winter and at the beginning of spring is unploughed the soil condition, as it is observed on options with NT, the number of procedures of transition through 0 °C soil temperatures sharply decreases, so a destruction of aggregates goes not so intensively on the soil surfaces. But, according to our research, in the spring, lumpiness in variants of the NT is not diminished, was 50–70 %, the lower limit soil wind erodibility for chernozem.

This phenomenon is bound to higher humidity of the soil which promotes coagulation of soil particles and existence of a large number of plant residues as source of the biological substances with capacity for bonding. These factors strengthen process of formation of aggregates, large by the size, what leads to increase soil lumpiness.

Direct observations of NT wind erosion control efficiency during dust storms on 26th and 27th of January, 2014 showed that soil loss in NT was 3.5 times less them on a variant of traditional tillage and 2.9 times less them on a variant of minimum tillage.

Key words: wind erosion, no-till, chornozem, plant residues, random roughness, soil lumpiness
 

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MICROMORPHOLOGY OF FOREST SOILS / МІКРОМОРФОЛОГІЯ ЛІСОВИХ ҐРУНТІВ


Yakovenko V. M. Macro- and micro-morphological differentiation of humus-accumulative horizon of forest soils

Яковенко В. М. Макро- та мікроморфологічна диференціація гумусово-акумулятивного горизонту лісових ґрунтів

               

DOI: 10.15421/041614

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The paper presents the results of studies of macro- and micromorphological differentiation of the surface humus-accumulative horizon (A) of forest soils of the steppe zone of Ukraine. The study groups included typical soil profiles of natural ravine, wall (slope of the river bank) and floodplain forests, and chernozem under grassy and artificial tree vegetation within Prisamarya Dniprovsky (Novomoskovsk district, Dnipropetrovsk region). In the macromorphological study, the method of field description of soils recommended by FAO (2012) was used, the characteristics of microstructural soil organization were described in G. Stoops (2003).

The differentiation of the surface humus-accumulation horizon (A) of the investigated soils is diagnosed after changes in a number of macro- and micromorphological characteristics of the structural state-morphology and aggregate size, total porosity, void morphology, and addition density. The analysis of morphological characteristics reveals both communities the features of differentiation of the humus-accumulative horizon, and certain differences between the soils of natural forests and Calcic Chernozem. The surface humus-accumulative horizon of Calcic Chernozem, both under grassy and under artificial tree vegetation, is differentiated into two sub-horizons A1 and A2. In the Voronic Luvic Chernozem of natural ravine, Luvic Phaeozem of the pristine (slope of the river bank) forests and Mollic Fluvisol of floodplain forests, the surface horizon is differentiated into three sub-horizons – A1, A2, A3.

At the macromorphological level, of the surface humus-accumulative horizon there are synchronous changes in the main characteristics of the structural state - the set and the dominant types of structure, the prevailing dimensions of aggregates within the framework of one type of structure, the total porosity, the diversity of the morphology of the voids, the relative participation of individual types of voids in the formation of pore space, density shape.

At the micromorphological level, differentiation is diagnosed on the basis of changes: a set and the relative ratio of different types of microstructure; the ratio of the dominant types of voids and the total area of apparent porosity; morphology of aggregates (shape, size, degree of accomodation of surfaces, intra-aggregate porosity) within a single type of microstructure. The more complex differentiation of the surface humus-accumulative horizon of forest soils in comparison with Calcic Chernozem is due to the greater thickness of the horizon, which causes a significant compaction in the lower direction within the surface horizon and more intensive biological activity (especially soil meso- and microfauna).

Key words: microstructure, morphology of voids, soil aggregates, density shape, forest soils
 

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Stryzhak O. V. Characteristic of the micromorphological state of the soils of the flood-lands of the Samara river

Стрижак О. В. Характеристика мікроморфологічного стану ґрунтів заплави р. Самари
               

DOI: 10.15421/041615

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The main micromorphological properties of the soils of the riverine valleys, the central and the terrain part of the Samara river have been revealed. The main factors that influence the creation of such a micromorphological organization of these soils are revealed. The basic micromorphological features of the soils of the pririal shaft are: plasma-sand microstructure, humus-argillaceous plasma, which is located in the form of films along grains of minerals; poorly developed porous network, represented mainly by pores-packings; weak aggregation of horizons. The fraction of grains of large size dominates in the skeleton. They are characterized by good roundness. The main reason for such a micromorphological organization of these soils is the immediate proximity to the Samara river. Due to the high water, some horizons can be washed off, or on the contrary, they can be washed by new ones due to the deposition of illuvial material. With the distance from the river and, accordingly, with the decrease in the influence of flood, the biological influence (forest vegetation and the activity of soil organisms) on the micromorphological properties of the soils of the central floodplain increases. This manifests itself in good structuring, developed pore network of upper horizons, presence of organic residues at different stages of decomposition.

In the profile, microstructure is inhomogeneous, in the upper horizons it is dusty-plasma, with depth changing to sand-plasma and in the lower horizons – plasma-sandy. Skeletal grains are characterized by traces of transport on their surface (scratches) and good roundness. The plasma is humus-clay, with a share of clay plasma decreases. The clay part of the plasma is characterized by birefringence, orientation and the ability to rebuild. The pore space is most developed in the upper horizons due to burrowing activity of earthworms. With depth, the pore area decreases, often their walls are covered with clay kutans due to illuvial processes.

The formation of the profile and the characteristic micromorphological organization of the soils of the central floodplain passed in several stages. The heavier fractions of the illuvial material were deposited on the underlying rocks with the weakening influence of floodplain processes. This can explain the great difference in the content and size of grains of minerals in the upper and lower horizons. Over time, the influence of forest vegetation and the burrowing activity of soil animals create entire coprolite horizons, which leads to an improvement in air and water conditions.

The soils of the flood-lands of the Samara River are characterized by the presence of a large amount of plant residues in the upper horizons and a low content of grains of the skeleton. With the depth the plant residues gets less, and the grains of minerals gets more. The profile is characterized by the presence of a large variety of kutans.

Specificity of micromorphological organization of soils of the terrain part of the flood-lands of the Samara River is due to the influence of forest vegetation, the close occurrence of groundwater and dynamic oxidation-reduction processes.

Key words: micromorphological organization, ecological factors, floodplain biogeocenoses
 

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SOIL PHYSICS / ФІЗИКА ҐРУНТІВ


Gorban V. A. To the method of studying the permittivity of soils (on an example of soils of ravine forests of the northern variant of the steppe zone of Ukraine)

Горбань В. А. К методике изучения диэлектрической проницаемости почв (на примере почв байрачных лесов северного варианта степной зоны Украины)

               

DOI: 10.15421/041616

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The article is devoted to the establishment of the peculiarities of the method for studying the dielectric permittivity of soils, which is its important electrophysical characteristic. The dielectric permittivity of the soil, which is a complex multiphase medium, depends on the dielectric properties of the mineral composition of its solid phase, the chemical composition, structure and composition of soil particles, their shape and size, and also the dielectric features of inter-porous air and moisture. Now it is possible to greatly simplify the technique of measuring the dielectric permittivity of soils due to the wide dissemination of compact digital instruments that provide high accuracy in measuring the capacitive characteristics of various media. For the approbation of the method, samples of soils of ravine forests of the northern variant of the steppe zone of Ukraine were used, as well as individual soil fractions of 2–3, 1–2 and 0.5–1 mm. All samples were studied in an air-dry state to level out the effect of moisture on the dielectric permittivity of soils, as described in many scientific papers. For measurements, a cylindrical condenser made of organic glass was manufactured, which does not conduct an electric current. The diameter of the capacitor plates was 20 mm, the distance between them was 0.7 mm. After placing the sample in the condenser, it was sealed by pressure from above the weight of about 0.3 kg to create a better contact with the covers of the capacitor. The measurements were carried out using a digital capacitance meter CM-9601A in the range of 0.1–200 picofarads at a test frequency of 800 Hz. At the end of the measurement, the soil sample was weighed to calculate its density. All measurements were performed three times. As a result of using this technique, it was found that the permittivity of a general soil sample is generally higher than that of individual soil fractions. This is explained by the more compact placement of soil particles in the soil sample and its greater density, while in studies of individual fractions, due to their shape, there remain pores between the aggregates that are not filled with soil material, which cause a decrease in sample density. As a result, the maximum density is typical for the soil fraction 0.5–1 mm, and the minimum for the fraction 2–3 mm. This is due to the fact that the maximum permittivity, as a rule, is characteristic for the fraction 0.5–1 mm, and the minimum for the fraction 2–3 mm.

This assertion was proved by the measurements carried out. It was also found that the value of dielectric permittivity is significantly affected by soil enrichment of the clay fraction, the increased content of which causes an increase in the dielectric permittivity. Thus, as a result of the research, a method for measuring the dielectric permittivity of soils was tested using a modern digital capacitive meter. An increase in the dielectric permittivity of soils with an increase in their density and an increase in the content of the clay fraction was established. Soils, in general, have an increased permittivity in comparison with soil fractions of 2–3, 1–2 and 0.5–1 mm.
There was a need to develop and approbate a technique for measuring the dielectric permittivity of soils in the field using undisturbed addition samples. In the future, in complex studies of soils, it is also desirable to perform a measurement of their dielectric permeability.
Key words: approbation of the technique, permittivity of soils, content of clay fraction
 

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FOREST HYDROLOGY / ЛІСОВА ГІДРОЛОГІЯ


Kotovych O. V. Heavy metals in the ground waters of Prisamarya Dniprovske

Котович О. В. Важкі метали в підгрунтових водах Присамар’я Дніпровського

               

DOI: 10.15421/041617

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In conditions of increasing anthropogenic pressure on the objects of the natural environment, an objective assessment of the hydrochemical state of water bodies is necessary, taking into account background values of heavy metals, the presence of which is associated only with natural factors. Therefore, the aim of our studies was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater lying in different geological and geomorphological conditions in a territory remote from the large industrial centers – Dnipro and Pavlograd.

As a result of the carried out researches it was possible to establish the qualitative and quantitative composition of microelements that are contained in the ground waters of Prisamarya Dniprovske. The most common microelements from those that were determined were zinc, strontium, iron and manganese. In the groundwater of the floodplain of the Samara River the most common are zinc, strontium, iron and manganese. A distinctive feature of the groundwater of the first above-terrace is the presence of a large amount of iron – an average of 2 mg/l3, while this is not observed in the groundwater of the floodplain and steppe areas. This can be attributed to the chemical characteristics of forest litter from needles which has an acidic pH reaction. In turn, with acid reaction, iron passes from the bound state to the free state and, together with the descending streams of water, migrates from the soil to the groundwater. Among the microelements of the second above-the-top terrace, zinc, copper, iron and manganese predominate. Other trace elements from those that were determined are absent, or their number is below the sensitivity limit of the device. With a deep bedding of groundwater (22 m) and their slow water exchange with surface waters among the microelements, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron and manganese predominate.

The direction of the migration of microelements in the system soil ↔ groundwater can be determined by calculating the concentration of chemical elements in the soil and groundwater contained. The concentrations obtained for lead, copper, nickel and manganese in the majority of the investigated objects turned out to be less than one, which indicates the predominance of processes of removal of microelements from soil to groundwater. At the same time for groundwaters of the first above-the-top terrace there is accumulation of such microelements as copper and manganese. Here the maximum value of the clark concentration for copper is 18.14, for manganese 14.66. Considering the absence of close proximity to the territory of the research of large industrial facilities and highways with intensive traffic, the indicators obtained by us can be used as background values in complex biogeocenological studies. In addition, the values obtained can be useful for assessing the hydrochemical and toxicological state of natural waters, as well as for the integrated ecohydrological assessment of water bodies in this region.
Key words: microelements, groundwater, clarke concentration of matter
 

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REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS / РЕМЕДІАЦІЯ ЗАБРУДНЕНИХ ҐРУНТІВ


Zamesova T. A. Influens of mole rats burrow activity to restore the soils proteolytic activity in terms of their man-made pollution

Замесова Т. А. Вплив рийної діяльності сліпака на відновлення протеолітичної активності ґрунтів за умов їх техногенного забруднення

               

DOI: 10.15421/041618

Abstract (Show preview in english)



Heavy metals, especially their large concentration, is toxic for all living creatures because they are accumulating in the living things tissues. Theirs excessive levels evoke coagulation of proteins that cause immediate death of cells. Heavy metals get into the ground by different ways: directly because of using, precipitation, industrial pollution. Their impacts may be either time limited and have low toxicity or, alternatively, it may be long-termed and expressing the pollutants' ability to accumulate them in the body and supply chains. In the edaphotop block of land biogeocenosis most of the transformation processes begin with soil degradation ones. This leads to disruption of soil-forming process cycle of matter and biological productivity of systems. Optimization of a particular system or a block is possible only by acting on their biological relations, which is responsible for managing the system. Distortion or optimization of relations occurs with the animals environmental-forming, the component of which is animals burrow activity. As a result of it, water and chemicals are being reallocated in soil depths, thermal and aeration modes are changed, formed typical zoogenous micro relief with specific physical and chemical properties of the soil. This improves the living conditions of soil micro-organisms. Last ones are involved in soil enzyme activity forming. Enzymes involved in important biochemical processes: synthesis and humus decomposition, hydrolysis of organic compounds, the schedule remains of plants and microorganisms and converted them available to fixation, fix loose items, are actively involved in the cycling of essential elements for plants, in oxidation renewable reactions, etc. It is possible to determine the extent of microorganism’s activity by means of indexes of soil proteolytic activity.

Conducted studies of the impact for animals burrow activity on the soils proteolytic activity for artificial forest under conditions of heavy metal pollution. Control plots were contaminated by lead with concentrations of 32; 160; 320 mg/kg of soil, which correspond to the maximum permissible concentration of 1; 5; 10 MAC. Samples were taken at 1st, 3rd and 15th months after contamination; proteolytic activity was determined by the Mishustin application method.

Current proteolytic activity of soil is determined in vivo. It is the result of microorganism’s vital functions. And in turn can be an indicator of microbial activity. Contamination of lead depressing vital functions for soil microorganisms. This effect is more noticeable in the first month after contamination. The characteristic dependence of the soil proteolytic activity on metal concentration was observed also, the higher the MPC, the lower proteolytic activity level. The characteristics' dependence of soil proteolytic activity on metal concentration were also observed: the higher MPC, the lower the activity level. It was shown that on the mole rats burrows-dug with lead contaminated the medium proteolytic activity level exceeded control 1.9; 1.76 and 1.53 times respectively, at 1st; 3rd and 15th months after contamination. Based on this we can say that burrowing activity of animals inhibits inhibitory effect of heavy metals and plays an important role in the self-cleaning environment.
Key words: mole rat, digging activity, heavy metals, soil, proteolytic activity
 

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OUR LOSSES / НАШІ ВТРАТИ


Travleyev Anatoliy Pavlovych / Травлєєв Анатолій Павлович