2015, Vol. 16. #3-4


FOREST SOIL SCIENCE / ЛІСОВЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО


 

Yakovenko V. M., Bilova N. A. Morphology of forest ravined soil formation on deluvial loams

Яковенко В. М., Білова Н. А. Морфологія лісового байрачного ґрунтоутворення на делювіальних суглинках

               

DOI:10.15421/041512

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The paper establishes the general features of the soil morphogenesis in ravined forests of Dnieper Prysamaria and genetic relationships of forest soils with zonal chernozem under herbaceous associations based on the detection of morphological properties that are «lithogenic», that is inherited from deluvial material and «pedogenic» features formed directly in the forest soil. The study area is located on the Dnieper Prysamaria (Dnipropetrovsk region) within the area of the steppes. The trial areas are incorporated in the upper Deep ravine, located in the upland part of watershed landscape. Catena is represented by five typical sections – between edging of the ravined forest and the field in the middle thirds of the slopes of the northern and southern exposures and in the thalweg of the ravine.

Samples for meso-morphological studies were selected by genetic horizons, samples for soil horizons were selected using a soil drill. Basic morphological characteristics were determined in the laboratory (except for the hardness index). The mathematical processing of the results was carried out by methods of nonparametric statistics (method K-means).

It was found that, despite the temporal and spatial disorder of deluvial material deposition processes and the differences of the water regime in the thalweg on the slopes, in the ravined biogeocenoses the forest soils are formed with common features of morphological organization of the genetic profile of the individual and morphological properties. The uniformity of the general structure is shown in a set sequence and the power of the genetic horizons, polycyclic and texture eluvial-illuvial differentiation of the genetic profile. The uniformity of the changes in the profile of the individual morphological properties is shown in the form of colour options of genetic horizons (due to humus content talus deposits), changing the particle size distribution of horizons in accordance with the general differentiation profile on eluvial and illuvial (due lessivage) part, changes in the morphology and dimensions of structural units related to changes in the structure of hardness horizons intensive leaching of carbonates from the profile of forest soils. The necessity of research processes clayization profile in situ, their role in the morphogenesis of compacted horizons are noted.

There are two groups of properties that make it possible to analyze the micromorphology level communication between the soils in the catena. The first – a lithogenic conditionally or diluvial material properties, which persist for a long time in a forest soil – granulometry and less coloration horizons. The second – a pathogenic properties, sharply differing in the studied soils associated with the peculiarities of morphogenesis of a particular genetic profile and specific genetic horizon. These include the level of occurrence of carbonates in the profile and intensity of effervescence, the morphology of the structural units, the hardness of the genetic horizons, the level of spot colour.

Cluster analysis identified a statistically illustrates the differences between the morphological structure of the soil catena, combining in one cluster the ravined soils on deluvial deposits under forest vegetation, and in the other – the soils on the loess under herbaceous vegetation. The contrast of differences increases down the profile.

Key words: forest soil, morphological properties, deluvial loams
 

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Vlasenko N. O. Rozsoshentsy forest area of Poltava-city green belt (soil-geobotanical  and typological and  characteristic)

Власенко Н. О. Розсошанський лісовий масив зеленої зони міста Полтави  (ґрунтово-геоботанічна та типологічна характеристики)

               

DOI:10.15421/041513

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Natural forests have their own ancient history, for this reason, their composition and structure reflect their existing conditions. In the artificial forests, only growth class and plantations general conditions can be in part the indicator of this residence. O. L. Belgard investigated natural biogeocoenosis and artificial cultural geocoenosis and worked up the detailed forest typology. The peculiarity of O. L. Belgard typology is biogeocoenological approach to the understanding and forest investigating based on G. M. Vysotskiy, G. F. Morozov, V. M. Suchkov ideas. O. L. Belgard accepted the conception of forest biogeocoenosis the components of which are phytocoenosis, zoocoenosis, microbiota, climatope and adaphotope.

Rozsoshentsy forestry consists of 87 planning compartments with a total area of 3130.0 hectares, is a part of National Enterprise “Poltava forestry” and is situated on its southern part on the territory of Poltava administrative district and Poltava city. There are no publications in the science literature that could systematically reflect the results of investigations taken place in Rozsoshentsy forest area. Different scientists in different times investigated particular types of vegetations; the general characteristic of forests was specified in some works. The aim of our work is the forest typology investigation, ecological and biological, typological, soil and geobotanical peculiarities of natural and artificial forests of Rozsoshentsy forest area.

For the fist time the investigation of natural and artificial forests of Rozsoshentsy forest area of Poltava-city green belt has been started according to the method of O. L. Belgard forest typology. Groups that were investigated inside the forestry are related to hydrotopes of bottomland forests with long-term flooding, bottomland forests with short-term flooding, noninundated with arena and ravine forests. The forest type is defined by accessories to specific trophotope and hydrotope and connected with floodplain factor of certain place of existence. The main place in definition of ecotope peculiarities takes vegetations that fully reflect the dimensionality of conditions. There are some plant associations inside the forest type that give an idea about coenosis from the floristic point of view. One or several associations can correspond to each forest type with direct species structure of tree, bushy and herbaceous layers. Artificial forests typological characteristic based on three taxonomic rank units: forest growth conditions type, ecological structure type and forest stand type.

It was found out that the main forest types in structure of investigated forest area are oak, pine, sticky alder and aspen, poplar and birch forests. It means that main forest forming types are six types of wood. Rozsoshentsy forest area of Poltava-city green belt dendroflora has 33 tree and bushy types, 24 genuses, 14 families, 2 rooms. The most popular forest types on the investigated territory according to the forest typology are new oak and pine trees – 31.9 % , new pine forests – 9.1 %, new and dry maple and linden forests – 27.2 % and 6.3 % correspondently. Forest accounts for 5.3 % of forested areas with excessive wet ground. The investigation that was carried out gave us an opportunity to find out four natural forest vegetation types: (new linden and hornbeam forest with wide grasses), Dn4 (alder forest with moist tall grasses), Dc3 (wet aspen forest with aise-weed), De3 (wet white poplar forest); and two types of artificial forest vegetations: De3 (wet white poplar forest) and AB1 (birch forest with dryish miscellaneous). Different variations of soils have been investigated. It was found out that in investigated natural phytocoenosis the type of forest growth conditions is clay loam with different variations: new (СГ2), wet (СГ3), moist (СГ4); and wet sandy loam (СП3); in artificial cultural phytocoenosis the sandy loam is wet and dryish.

The prevailing soil types on the territory of Rozsoshentsy forestry are dark grey podzolized forest loam, typical chernozem and podzolized hard loamy chernoozem, but in floodplain of the river Vorskla is a peat-bog soils. The content of humus is 7–8 %. The depth of ground water deposits connected with deposits of brown-red underclay (impermeable horizon) and ranges according to the relief elements and soil degree of erosion from 15 to 34 m. Carbonates are absent in soil of Rozsoshentsy forest area. Water extract analysis tells about the lack of salinity, dry particles ranges between 0.05–0.2 %, PH is mostly alkaline.

Detailed ecological and biological characteristics and establishing peculiarities of Rozsoshentsy forest area adaphotope will give an opportunity to reconstruct the existing Poltava-city green belt plantations and organize the stationary investigations with the aim of their employment and saving.

Key words: forests typology, soil and geobotanical characteristic, edaphotop, forest biogeocenoses, Rozsoshentsy forest area
 

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Oganesyan M. S., Mуkhailichenko A. A. Features of the content of carbonates in the ordinary chernozem improved by forest under plantings of false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

Оганесян М. С., Михайліченко О. О. Особливості вмісту карбонатів у чорноземі звичайному лісопокращеному під насадженнями білої акації (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

               

DOI:10.15421/041514

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Carbonate neoplasms are the characteristic feature of the black soil profile. The study of morphological and micromorphological characteristics and chemical composition gives an idea of the black soil genesis and serves as the diagnostic feature of classification units of them. The study of migration carbonate in the chernozem are of great scientific and practical interest (Afanasyeva, 1996).

Nowadays the issues of migration carbonates, as well as the extent of the manifestation of this process in the soil profile need further researching, which is important as carbonates has one of the main role in basic soil processes, in particular, they affect the concentration and activity of calcium ions in the soil solution, the composition of the soil absorbing complex and pH in the soil solution. Carbonate neoplasms contribute to the formation of strong coagulation structures, which increases soil fertility and harvest agricultural crops, provides resistance against the wind, prevents reduction of the upper fertile soil layer, increases mobility of some chemical elements and improves such physical characteristics of soil as density, permeability and porosity (Goncharova, 1983). The aim of our work was to study the content of calcium carbonate in the soil profile of the test section 201–L under of the acacia plantations crops of forest ecosystems and to determine of their distribution in the soil genetic horizons. According to the aim of our work of we has the following tasks: to give a general characterization of carbonates of calcium in Chernozem usual, to perform sampling of the genetic horizons of the soil profile of test section 201–L, to determine the content of carbonates by conventional gravimetric methods; to study the features of the content of carbonates in soil profiles of test section 201–L; to conduct statistical processing of the obtained data; to formulate conclusions of the performed research.

Soil samples were selected according to the standard technique in genetic horizons of the soil profile on three times (Fedorets, 2009). Determination of the percentage content of carbonates in the soil was performed by the gravimetric method, which is based on weight loss of soil due to discharge of CO2 during the destruction of carbonates with acid. It should be noted that the method can be applied in the case of the carbonates content up to 70 % (Travleev et al., 2009)

The average coefficient of variation of carbonates of calcium content in genetic horizons of the soil profile is 77.5 %. This is quite a high rate, so as General it is considered that if the value of the coefficient of variation is less than 33 %, the result is considered homogeneous if more than 33 %, it is inhomogeneous. Based on this observation, we conclude that carbonate calcium has inhomogeneous redistribution of genetic horizons of test section 201–L. Regarding the reliability of the obtained data, we can see that the standard error calculations for each of the horizons does not exceed 0,34, which in turn confirms the accuracy of the our data. According to our calculations the lowest content of calcium carbonate is 1.47 % in the first horizon, and biggest – 16,07 % in the genetic horizon Ph (70–90 cm).

These results are extending the current understanding of the processes of formation and distribution of calcium carbonate in the genetic horizons of the soil profile of the Chernozem ordinary. The data of percentage of calcium carbonate may be used in the solution of the question of the genesis, evolution and classification of soils, the obtained data can serve as the basis of the research the conditions of pedogenesis under the influence of natural climatic fluctuations and anthropogenic factors.

Key words: carbonates of calcium, genetic horizons, soil profile, chernozem ordinary improved by forest, false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)
 

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Maltsev Ye. I. Biological activity in the forest floor of artificial forests in the steppe zone

Мальцев Е. И. Биологическая активность лесной подстилки искусственных лесов в степной зоне

               

DOI:10.15421/041515

Abstract (Show preview in english)


A special role in the biological cycle in forest biogeocoenoses plays forest floor, which connects the abiotic and biotic components in an integral system, affects the genesis of forest soils and productivity of forest plantations. The most informative indicators of biological activity of the soil and the forest floor are the activity of enzymes, the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions, the number and qualitative composition of the main groups of microorganisms. Particular specificity of these indicators acquire in artificial forest plantations in the steppe zone, due to the geographical, ecological and often a mismatch in habitat conditions for forest.

The aim of this work was to study the biological activity of the forest floor in artificial forest plantations in the steppe zone of Ukraine (on the example of Staro-Berdyansk forest).

Staro-Berdyansk forest (Zaporizhia region, Ukraine), founded in 1846 on the left bank of the Molochnaya river. Studies of the biological activity the forest floor carried out on stationary plots in stands of Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus pallasiana D. Don during 2013 year seasonally.

Analysis of the data series using correlation method showed that the increase in the forest floor the magnitude of algae, micromycete and oligotrophic microorganisms is accompanied by an increase in catalase activity (correlation coefficients: 0,80; 0,91; 0,95), at the same time micromycete and oligotrophs positively associated with thermolabile component of catalase activity (correlation coefficients: 0,75; 0,95). In periods of reduction of catalase activity increases the number of actinomycetes (r = -0,67). Polyphenol oxidase activity is positively correlated with the magnitude of micromycete in the forest floor (r = +0,68) and negatively with the population of actinomycetes (r = -0,86) and bacteria, that use mineral nitrogen compounds (r = -0,69). In periods of activation of phosphatase the magnitude of algae and micromycete decreases (r = -0,92 and r = -0,80; respectively) and cellulolytic microorganisms increases (r = +0,75).

Integral indicator of biological activity of the forest floor is the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, indicating the intensity of the processes of transformation of organic matter. The greatest intensity of carbon dioxide emissions recorded in autumn samples of locust bean and pine plantations. The oak stands a high level of carbon dioxide emissions occur in summer and autumn.

The magnitude of microorganisms and algae, enzyme activity and the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions in the forest floor changed by seasonal, which corresponds to the dynamics of the overall progress of biological processes occurring in the forest floor. On the biological activity of the forest floor is significantly affected by the composition of plant residues, which generally corresponds to the views of various researchers who have noted a correlation of enzyme activity in the soil with the magnitude of microorganisms, as well as biochemical and chemical composition of forest floor and the stages of its destruction.

Key words: forest floor, algae, microorganisms, enzymatic activity, carbon dioxide emissions, the steppe zone
 

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MONITORING AND REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS / МОНІТОРИНГ ТА РЕМЕДІАЦІЯ ЗАБРУДНЕНИХ ҐРУНТІВ


Samokhvalova V. L., Fateev A. І., Samokhvalova P. A., Mandryka O. V.,  Bublyk V. D., Kutz O. Determination of oil and oil products total content  in soils for monitoring of contamination and effectiveness of remediation

Самохвалова В. Л., Фатєєв А. І., Самохвалова П. А., Мандрика О. В., Бублик В. Д., Куц О. Визначення загального вмісту нафти та нафтопродуктів у ґрунтах для моніторингу забруднення та ефективності ремедіації

               

DOI: 10.15421/041516

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The method of determining the content of oil and petroleum products in the soils is substantiated through the use established by thermogravimetric curves optimum temperatures and time intervals thermal sample of contaminated soil, determination of total losses its weight on the appropriate formula which ensures the quantitative determination of total content level of hydrocarbons of oil and oil products in the soil with increased accuracy and quick testing of the method. In the methodical approach by combining individual components of the known methods thermogravimetry and gas chromatography, the distribution regularities of changes in the sample mass under the influence of thermal effects on a new class of objects with simultaneous production of a rapid method for determination of total content of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils, provided simplification soil samples algorithm analyzing for pollution monitoring and the remediation effectiveness of obtaining the economic use of resources.

The invention belongs to the field of environmental protection, soil quality, namely to the ways of determine the content of oil and petroleum products (diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, etc.) in contaminated soils while of soils lands plot monitoring.

The method can be used in the field of conservancy in the oil industrial complex in determining the degree of contamination of soil for rapid analysis of soil samples; in agroecology, soil ecological management for environmental monitoring of technologically contaminated soils of lands plots for various purposes and their using; in research practice - to investigate the thermal processes and properties of soils; elaboration of scientific and methodical bases of contaminated soils monitoring (diagnosis, assessment, forecast ecological state), environmental regulation of organic nature contaminants in soils; regulation of the using and soil remediation processes to improve quality.

Based on the analysis of the scientific literature data and results of long-term experiments it was determined the optimal temperature range of 280–500 ○C with different temperature ranges of thermal evaporation the fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons. Series conducted modeling experiments with varying temperature, time, sample the soils and the changing quantitative and qualitative composition of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils, the total petroleum hydrocarbons thermogravimetric method has been found that the thermal degradation of contaminated soils samples formed various fractions of hydrocarbons, which leads to increased losses mass m contaminated soil sample to obtain thermogravimetric curves. By the method of gas chromatography, in the range of 100–200 ○C it is set the selective extraction of lighter fractions of petroleum and petroleum products in the soil; in the range of 280–350 ○C – it is noted a sharp increase in the rate of decomposition of oil saturated hydrocarbons (C10–C40) with intensive gas evolution, the formation of a mixture of reaction products is a significant amount of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Thus, the use of established ranges of determining the optimum temperature desorption fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons and their thermal degradation of soil samples for thermolysis with simultaneous identification of the total content of oil and petroleum products in the soil, it is possible to determine the total amount of oil hydrocarbons fractions in soil as the amount of oil hydrocarbons. The proposed algorithm method is suitable for the soils of different genesis.

It is determined that the consistent increase in temperature is a necessary procedure for the identification of pollution if soil sample analysis of the expected low concentrations of oil and petroleum products and water content in soils of different types and different size distribution of more than 5 % of oil production zones. By evaluating the flow of thermal processes in the surveyed contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples the temperature ranges degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is determined. Their using, as an indicator, significantly reduced the timing of selection of optimal technological parameters of thermal oils in the soils for determining the total content of oil and petroleum products in the soils, pollution monitoring and remediation efficiency control.

Key words: soil, oil and oil products, monitoring, pollution, the effectiveness of remediation
 

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Gunko S. O. Ecological peculiarities of cadmium dispersal at the urbanized terrain edaphotopes of the Steppe Dnieper region (shown by Dniprodzerzhinsk as an example)

Гунько С. О. Екологічні особливості розповсюдження кадмію в едафотопах урбанізованих територій степового Придніпров’я (на прикладі м. Дніпродзержинська)

               

DOI: 10.15421/041517

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The objective of this research is the clarification of ecological peculiarities of cadmium dispersal at the urbanized terrain edaphotopes of Dniprodzerzhinsk. Heavy metals have been widely discussed in a huge number of researches. Special attention should be paid to cadmium as one of the most hazardous environmental toxic agents. There exist multiple data on cadmium content in various soil types of Ukraine, but until the present time there’s no full information as for the accurate geochemical behavior of cadmium in the soils, as well as for the priority impact of one or another soil property upon its concentration in certain soil types – natural ones or anthropogenically modified ones. The applicability of such researches is first of all determined by the necessity to decrease the hazardous environmental consequences of soil contamination with cadmium, as well as to improve the living conditions of the population. Evaluation of the technology-related impact upon the city soil layer is of current concern in terms of monitoring that is corresponding to the modern tasks for the environmental condition control.

The article highlights the issue of ecological peculiarities of cadmium dispersal at the urbanized terrain edaphotopes of Dniprodzerzhinsk: variety of cadmium concentration being formed under the natural and anthropogenous influence in the soils of Dniprodzerzhinsk makes difficult to solve the problem of soil contamination with such chemical element. Soils with various content of cadmium can be found within the limits of the city, underneath the steppe vegetation. Content differentiation is attributed to rather diverse set of processes in the soil and to various properties of the soils. Edaphotopes of all studied right-bank urbanized terrains are cadmium contaminated to any extent. Cadmium content in the soil layer of the administrative districts of Dniprodzerzhinsk is ascending as follows: Dniprovsky district (0.6–9.9 mg/kg) – Bagliy district (1.0–10.5 mg/kg) – Zavodsky district (1.5–10.8 mg/kg).

Evaluation of intensity of the technology-related geochemical abnormalities in the city soils has been provided by the abnormality level factor. The lowest (weak) soil contamination level can be observed within the edaphotopes of the left-bank area of Dniprovsky district of the city. High and very high soil contamination levels can be observed within the urbanized terrains of the right-bank part of the city at Bagliy and Zavodsky districts (eastern, central and western areas).

Results of the statistical processing of the experimental material show the ratios of correlation of cadmium content and mechanical composition of the soil and humus. Absence of cadmium correlation with physical clay-fraction of soil, as well as close significant relation with humus enable us to associate its presence in the soils with biogenous accumulation, being also the evidence of the anthropogenous impact upon cadmium content in the soil layer.

Key words: cadmium, edaphotope, dispersal, geochemical abnormalities, urbanized terrains
 

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LAND RECLAMATION / РЕКУЛЬТИВАЦІЯ ЗЕМЕЛЬ


 

Uzbek I. Kh. Some properties of man-made Dnieper Steppe ecosystems

Узбек І. Х. Деякі властивості техногенних екосистем степового Придніпров’я
               

DOI: 10.15421/041518

Abstract (Show preview in english)



Physico-chemical and hydrogeological properties of technogenic ecotope landscapes are unique in the world. Their development has created a new, completely unexplored problem of recultivation of disturbed lands. The ecological and biological evaluation of ecotypes is the leading place because it is the basis of targeted restoration of fertility of such anthropogenic tumors.

As tests for the development of waste quarry sectors in the long-term stationary trials there were tested 23 species of higher plants. In the steppe of Ukraine the greatest ecological and biological according to technogenic ecotopes showed alfalfa and sainfoin. They are plant-dominants, accumulate large quantities of biomass, creating pockets of concentrations of elements in soil fertility, improve the sanitary conditions of the surrounding area.

The nature translocational process in higher plants was identified. It completely depends on their biological features and is the creation of their root systems with the same structure and therefore their distribution in the thickness of elafotopos who are able to provide plants with nutrients and to produce the maximum possible efficiency in data soil-ecological conditions.

Alfalfa and sainfoin showed great ecological plasticity of root systems. On the poverty of ecotopes batteries they reacted by increasing the surface and length of roots. It is established that the saturation of ecotopes roots is directly proportional to their mass, and the surface root system and its length are values associated with root mass. With the depth of the absorbing working surface root systems increases.

The mathematical model of calculation of the ecological and biological characteristics of root systems of plants and progressive framework method of selection of soil monoliths with roots. After washing, the roots are reported to air-dry state and are distributed through the thickness of 4 factions: more than 5 mm, 5–1, 1–0,5 and less than 0.5 mm. This allows you to get an idea about the structure of the root system and its distribution in the thickness of ecotopes, as well as to determine the portion of the roots through which the greatest absorption of water and food items.

The features of the development of the underground part of plants that is the basis for the development of practical methods of influence on ecotopia. For example, alfalfa is useful for sodding slope plots dump pits or eroded fields, and sainfoin – to create water-stable structural units.

It is shown that the qualitative indicators of ecotopes strictly determine the morphology and aboveground and underground parts, as well as the number and weight of nodules in legumes.

In the thickness of ecotopes man-made landscapes is the basis for the creation of primary consorting relations are root systems of perennial leguminous grasses. They determine the structure of microbial cenosis and regulate the number of microorganisms. Adaptation of perennial legumes and soil microorganisms to the variability of environmental conditions in the deep ecotypes reflects their close interaction with the factors of this unique environment.

Overburden, the unconsolidated rocks have a high stimulatory effect on the development of microorganisms. In 10–15 years after the removal of the "day" the surface sets up a pool of microorganisms and is manifested microbiological profile, the pattern of which reflects the diversity of ecotopia.

There was determined the intensity of decomposition of roots in a layer of technogenic ecotopes landscapes. It falls in the direction from the zonal soil to gray-green clay. For the year transformed to 80 % of the roots of alfalfa and to 66 % in winter wheat. First of all the thin roots of the legumes were destroyed in the spring.

It was shown increased sidorovskaya role of kulturpflanzen, especially species of alfalfa and sainfoin. They are plant-dominants and create pockets of concentration of the soil platoro-Diya. Soil formation begins with the surface, gradually spreading to the lower layers of ecotopes.

Key words: technogenic landscape, reclamation, disturbed lands ecotope, microorganisms, roots of plants
 

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Zverkovsky V. M., Zubkova O. S. Dynamics of mine  rocks and artificial soils physical and chemical  characteristics under the impact of long-term reclamation

Зверковський В. М., Зубкова О. С. Зміни фізичних і хімічних  властивостей шахтних порід та штучних ґрунтів під впливом довготривалої рекультивації

               

DOI: 10.15421/041519

Abstract (Show preview in english)



The physicochemical characteristics of mine rocks and artificial soils of forest recultivation plot № 1 of «Pavlogradska» main were studied. The absorbed moisture, maximal absorbed moisture, volume weight, unit weight, porosity of soils, content of water-soluble elements, pH of soils’ solutions, salinity and wilting point of plants were described. The dynamics of mine rocks and artificial soils physicochemical characteristics, which have an influence on forests suitability and silvicultural effect, gradually changing due to long-term reclamation, were ascertained.

Variants of artificial soils, created on the experimental forest recultivation plot, have qualitative differences from natural etalon soils, disturbed destructive soils and differences between themselves.

During the creation of various soil constructioins at the technical stage of recultivation it is often not taken into account the possible distant consequences that arise in connection with the dynamic features of the climate, topography, lithology, hydrology and other indicators of technogenic landscapes. Due to the functioning of these soil constructions on the biological stage of recultivation there are significant changes in physical properties and processes, occurring in the remediation root layer, therefore the monitoring of pedogenesis and evolution of these structures becomes relevant. Tehnozems, formed during reclamation process, are significantly different from zonal soils in the level of fertility (trophicity), physical, water-physical, agrochemical and other important ecosystem indicators. Spatial variability of artificial soils properties leads to a diversity of ecological conditions of mikrobocenosis, phytocenosis and zoocenosis functioning on the recultivation plots.

The most important properties for evaluation of the prospects of ways and methods of mine dumps forest reclamation are the following physico-chemical parameters of mine rock and artificial soils as the actual acidity, content of water-soluble salts and humus, fraction composition of the clay fraction, mechanical (granulometric) composition, water-physical properties within a recultivation layer. The aim of the research is investigation of the dynamics of physico-chemical properties and forests suitability of bulk substrates on the forest recultivation plot № 1 of «Pavlogradska» main, with area of 3.2 hectares, where different constructions of forest plantations are being tested since 1976 on the different versions of artificial soils. The novelty of the work is that the findings substantiate the environmental assessment of artificial soils properties dynamics under influence of the long-term biological remediation. Over a long period of reclamation an acidity of main rock remains exceeding because of high sulphates content (up to 3,1 %). Salinity of substrates, contacting with main rock, decreased by 14–22 % in comparison with an initial salinity due to water-soluble salts migration and reclamation influence of experimental forest cultures.

Bulk soil constructions on mine dumps of the forest recultivation plot in the steppe conditions can be attributed to humus-accumulative tehnozems with gradually increasing silvicultural effect.

Key words: reclamation, recultivation, main rock, artificial soils, physicochemical characteristics.
 

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Galagan T. I. The theoretical and methodological direction of the strategy of land reclamation

Галаган Т. І. Теоретико-методологічний напрямок стратегії рекультивації     порушених земель

               

DOI: 10.15421/041520

Abstract (Show preview in english)



The ecological-economic strategy of use and protection of remediated land was developed. It consists of four main interconnected stages: preparatory, agrotechnical, agroecological and economic.

The preparatory phase ensures that the top layer of arable cultivation of waste land through the introduction of career-technical and chemical meliorations, depending on which branch of the economy continue to be used in this area. It was during this time where money is being spent to conduct geotechnical work associated with the remediation of internal and external dump pits.

The agrotechnical phase provides optimization of the properties of ecotopia as the habitat of plants. During this phase, funds are spent on the application of organic (norm not less than 50 t/ha manure), organic-mineral and mineral (about 80 kg/ha d. g) fertilizers. In this case, improved physico-chemical properties of remediated land, increases the level of their fertility, which is reflected in the number of products received.

Agroecological stage forms the ecotopia suitability for use in agricultural production. This stage contains the effect and aftereffect of all previous measures aimed at amelioration of the restored lands. During this phase, special attention is paid to the final layout of the surface of the field and introduction of special phyto-reclamation rotations, saturated of perennial leguminous herbs or their mixtures with other herbs, including legumes and does not.

For each plot must be restored designing her the only acceptable rotation, the ratio and selection of plant species which should be oriented not only at obtaining a stable, high-quality products, but also on the formation of appropriate environmental conditions that ensure the optimal development of all components of biogeocenosis and their protection.

The economic stage is what defines the economic sector, the most appropriate future use of remediated lands. On the basis of long-term monitoring researches, within each region, the methodological guidance and practical recommendations for the rational foundations of socio-ecological and economic use of the reclaimed lands in agricultural production are developed. It is determined the payback period of all costs incurred during reclamation of the site and the territory in general.

On the basis of these stages it is proved a strategic direction for the creation and implementation of the dump pits of the mining enterprises of the steppe Dnieper eight basic models of land restoration.

The big attention is paid to the biological stage of recultivation, which is based on the analysis and the account of economical, business and physical – geographical features of a place of mining operations.

In this paper it is resulted the list of the basic rocks of Nikopol manganese – ore field from which artificial lands (edaphotopes) are created and the prospective branch of their further use is underlined. The priority trend is taken away to an agricultural production. And, to recultivated plots should be given such possibilities which would allow them to perform the same functions what they realized before destruction of this locality. Methodical development works are offered relative to: price definitions of humus layer before destruction of soil and cost 1 м3 of the restored soil covering; expenses on renewal of productive potential of recultivated lands; definitions of the gross revenue and quantity of production from recultivated lands.

Also it is affirmed, that recultivated lands should receive not only economic, but also ecological estimation as this indicator reflects the ecological conditions in the given district and has the big social value.

The term «Factor of the ecological well-being» districts and its gradation is entered, allowing to define the period of recoupment of expenses on recultivation of land taking into account the ecological and economical efficiency of the restored area.

Key words: strategic stages of reclamation, model reclamation
 

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DISCUSSION / ДИСКУСІЇ


Tsapko Yu. L. Discussion problems of humus nature

Цапко Ю. Л. Дискусійні проблеми природи гумусу

               

DOI: 10.15421/041521

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The article is based on a generalization of the author's prior research and review of scientific sources, discussion questions about the nature of humus are put and in particular the latest structural views on the structure of humus are given.

Is emphasized that despite the long experience of studying soil humus question its structural buildings has not been studied. Nowadays the scientific community there are a number of different and often antagonistic hypotheses on which the structure of humus is significantly different. Based on the features of genetic connection between fulvic and humic acids, which serve as precursors of the second, examined in detail the mechanism of formation humic acid as a result Connection by transverse by chemical bonds fulvic acid cyclic compounds through reactionary groups.

The model of clathrate structure of humus is proposed, which shows that it has huge molecular weight inherent megamolecules or supramolecules. Mega molecules that are linked by hydrophobic powers and mineral soil matrix serve as the next level of organization (ordering) of humus. The last one causes extreme stability of clathrate structures of humus, and their ability to provide stable soils, a kind of buffering, certain biochemical background, color and so on.

It is noted that the high stability of clathrates structure of humic acids provided by the presence in their inner part of a significant number of structured water. The high stability of clathrates is also explained by the fact that they necessarily contain such an integral part of humus as humic, which is closely associated with the mineral soil matrix. This fact allows to present the clathrate structures in a general model of humus.

The proposed model crown clathrate buildings of humic acids allows the display of their interaction with cations, which is the basis for assessing changes of acid-base balance of soils. Because of the inherent humic acid clathrate structure becomes clear very high resistance to water the last as well as to acid hydrolysis.

Due to the high biological activity of chernozems and high content of clay minerals, and thus high content of aluminum, is not observed the increasing of acidity and mineralization of humus. In our view, the first one is because of the fact that mobile aluminum and its compounds are the part of the inner clathrates structure and lose their reactivity and are not able to acidification of the soil environment; and the second one is because of the clathrates resistance of humus. In the latter suggests the following – distinction (single) crown compounds are rather easily destroyed by microorganisms, that is due to the high microbiological activity of soils, for example in the brown soils. However, in chernozems, in similar circumstances, there is an extremely high humus resistance as to different types of hydrolysis and mineralization also.

In the sod-podzolic soils and the brown soils the processes of compound crowns of fulvic acids in a complex of humic acid clathrates are slowed down. As a result, the ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid decreases, and as a rule, the soil acidity increases. The opinions on the structural organization of humus presented in article are only part of the problems. Their solving is dictated by the need for the development of modern science about soils. The other opinions in the context of the article, and in many other fields of Soil Science are extremely interesting.
Key words: humic acids, fulvic acid, structure of humus, humin, clathrates structure, mehamolekuly
 

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CHRONICLE / ХРОНІКА


Recio Espejo J. M., del Olmo F. Diaz Seminar «The soils as resource in the Biosphere» 25, 26 and 27/November/2015 International University of Andalusia (Huelva, Spain)  

Реціо Еспехо Х. М., дель Олмо Ф. Діас Семінар «Ґрунти як ресурс у біосфері», 25–27 листопада 2015 (Уельва, Іспанія)  

               

DOI: 10.15421/041522

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