2013, Vol. 14. #3-4

 

SOIL PHYSICS / ФІЗИКА ҐРУНТІВ

 

Медведев В. В. Бигун О. Н. Об оптимальной, допустимой и недопустимой плотности сложения распахиваемых почв

Medvedev V. V., Bihun O. M. About optimum, admissible and inadmissible soil bulk density ploughed up

 

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On the basis of processing of soil properties database (all about 2000 sections), experimental field and laboratory modelling researches dynamics of bulk density soil ploughed up of Ukraine is described. Within the limits of scope of fluctuations key parameters of the most friable, modal (the most probable value), optimum (in relation to grain cultures), admissible (at which in soil is kept not less than 15 % of air) and inadmissible (at the critical contents of air less than 15 %, causing negative transformations in soil formation processes and development of roots), and also conditionally maximal (after 10 passes of heavy tractor Т-150К) are installed.

The modal level of compaction is differentiated for all gradation of texture, that installs characteristic, equilibrium compaction inherent in the genetic status of soil. Between admissible and inadmissible levels form compaction, suitable for cultivation of agricultural crops and which should be maintained during their vegetation. For the majority of soil light texture of Polesye the bulk density should be in a range of 1,35–1,65 gr/cm3, loamy soils of Forest-Steppe and heavy loamy/light clay soils of Forest-Steppe and Steppe accordingly 1,10–1,35 and 1,15–1,40 gr/cm3.

The specified zonal parameters of compaction are recommended to be used as soil-saving specifications and to not suppose unduly friable and overcompacted condition. Measurements of soil penetration resistance by means of penetrometer with automatic record of results can be used for the control of soil bulk density in field conditions. Regions where soil tillage and a choice of machine-tractor units (МТU) should be carried out with extra care are revealed. It mainly soils of West-Forest-Steppe provinces and soils ploughed up of Predkarpatja and Zakarpatja, heavy loamy and light clay soils of east left-bank Forest-Steppe and Steppe, and also soils of Steppe Crimea.

To save soils from overcompaction is possible, not supposing on fields МТU with specific pressure of their running system above state standard, especially during the spring period, and also minimizing number of passes of technical equipment at cultivation of crops, or resorting to doubling their wheels.

Key words: optimum, modal equilibrium, admissible, inadmissible bulk density.
 

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CHEMISTRY OF SOILS / ХІМІЯ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Дегтярьов В. В., Панасенко О. С. Якісний склад колоїдних форм гумусу у водотривких структурних агрегатах чорнозему типового Лівобережного Лісостепу України

Degtyarev V. V., Panasenko O. S. The qualitative composition of colloidal form of humus in waterproof structural aggregates Left-Bank typical chernozem Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

 

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The studying of soil aggregates formation,as a part of more than a general problem of the interaction of organic and mineral components of the soil, has significant theoretical and practical interest. During the research of colloidal humus forms of typical chernozem water resistant structural units,while preparing samples for analysis, very small organic particles were observed, they were placed on the surface of the solution during the extraction of active humus from the soil. Studies have shown that the soil mass contains organic residues – detritus. Detritus villi of typical chernozem soil samples selected from different areas of intensive agricultural use are different in sizes and shapes.

Revealed regularities of structural formation (aggregation of elementary soil particles) in different type of use of typical chernozem in forrest-steppe of Ukraine. After removing of the active humus from soil samples revealed that the quantity and quality of detritus varies in the composition of the passive humus. Structural units of virgin soil and soil under forest belts contain elongated detritus fragments which possibly can participate in the formation of micro aggregates with the subsequent formation of macro aggregates. In structural units of tillage passive humus detritus has short and small fragments, which do not allow to form agronomically valuable structural units.

Formation of the structural unit is possible to imagine like this: humic substances saturate a piece of clay, followed by polycondensation and polymerization, there by envelop clay particles- forming organo-mineral smallest elementary unit, further, with the participation of divalent cations, first of all Ca2+, connecting these smallest units and the formation of micro aggregates, the humic substances actually cover with foil the mineral particles and the same time are absorbed by detritus; detritus with adsorbed humic substances on it begins to be aggregated. When its humic substances are connected through the carboxyl and amino groups and divalent cations with micro aggregates then the macro aggregates are formed. Detritus acts as a basis for sustainability of macro aggregates of chernozem soils. Detritus villi can, in turn, connect several micro aggregates, using adsorbed actually humus substances in structural macroaggregates.

Key words: colloidal forms of humus, typical chernozem, the organic portion of the soil, structural unit, actually humus substances, detritus
 

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Крохін С. В., Моргунова О. І. Лужногідролізований азот в цілинних і агрогенних ґрунтах лісостепу і степу України

Krohin S. V., Morgunova O. I. Alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen on virgin and agrogene soils of the forest-steppe and steppe regions of Ukraine

 

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A great number of scientists worldwide have been interested in nitrogen regime of the soils from the ancient time up to now. High and stable yields of agricultural craps depend on nitrogen content and its dynamics in the soil. In those regions where environmental condition do not restrict growth and development of agricultural craps, farming productivity is determined by the content of those nitrogen forms in the soil which are easily assimilated by the plants (Bray, 1986).

To estimate nitrogen provision there is a concept of the nitrogen which is easily hydrolyzed with alkali in agricultural practice. I. V. Turin and M. M. Kononova refer to theme mineral nitrogen composition and a part of nitrogen of simple organic substances which comprise amino acids and amides as a result of mineralization of which ammonium and nitrate nitrogen is formed. This nitrogen characterizes the level of soil cultivation and also the level of nitrogen provision, since its content shows close correlative dependence between nitrogen which is withdrawn with alkali, humus content, general nitrogen content and nitrification ability. Cornfield adds ammonium nitrogen exchange, free and absorbed ammonium nitrogen exchange, free and absorbed ammonia, amides, partially amino acids and amino sugars to these compositions (Marchuk, 2014).

So, it is rather difficult to investigate the variations of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen content in dart brown soils and common and typical black soil of Ukraine under the influence of agricultural activity of a man.

Soil simples assortment was made with a barer and soil section five times (ISO 10381-2:2004), alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen convent was determined by canfield method (Jagodin, 1982).

It was established that typical black soil are characterized by the highest content of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen among the investigated soils. The soils with virgin steppe and wood vegetation have the highest levels of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen content among all the investigated variants. Any agricultural activity leads to nitrogen reduction in 0–10 cm layer and insignificant accumulation in deeper investigated layers.

Plowing and further agricultural exploitation of Forest-Steppe and Step soils of Ukraine leads to alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen loss. The soil of tillage variant have a law level of this element provision.

Considerable accumulation of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen is noticed in command black soil and typical black soils unlike dark brawn soils and typical black soils after fallow regime introduction along the investigation soil stratum in comparison with arable soils. Comparing layers content of alkaline hydrolyzed content in follow soils and arable sails we came to the conclusion that fallow regime introduction promotes more ever destruction of this element on the investigation soil stratum.

Alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen content in the soils of various variants of agricultural usage is determined for Forest-Steppe and Steppe conditions of Ukraine.

Candent variations of alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen in dark brown soils, common and typical black when introduction theme in agricultural cultivation gives and opportunity to set in fertilizers application to get highest yields in the conditions of Forest-Steppe and steppe regions Ukraine.

Key words: alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen, dark brawn soils, common black soils, typical black soils
 

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Сіліч І. О. Вміст рухомих форм важких металів в едафотопах рекреаційних та промислових зон Криворіжжя

Silich I. А. The content of mobile forms of heavy metals in recreation edaphotops and industrial areas of Kryvorizhya

 

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The development of modern mining-metallurgical industry is inextricably linked to environmental pollution. The main and most dangerous contaminants are heavy metals, such as their mobile forms.

Krivoy Rog is one of the largest industrial center of Ukraine, so the issue of environmental pollution is quite relevant. Many researchers have paid much attention to the study of soil contamination areas adjacent to the North and Ingulets Mining. The aim of our study was to determine the edaphotops’ pollution regional differences of industrial and recreational zones of Kryvorizhzhya by mobile forms of HM.

For a detailed analysis of heavy metals in soils it was conducted an environmental and hygienic evaluations of the content of mobile forms. The soil samples selection and preparation was realized by standart methods. The mobile forms of HM were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in ammonium-acetate extract pH 4,8.

There was also selected the local background plot situated in the steppe zone of northern steppe subzone. The soil of this area is represented by ordinary black middle-and powerful medium that is typical for the study area. In the local background plot soils among the metals of the first class of danger the biggest content of plumbum was revealed. Among the metals of the second class of danger nickel dominated. Among the metals of the third class of danger the high indicator of manganese were fixed.

By the results of environmental analisis the recreational zones of Kryvorizhzhya have almost the identical level of contamination by mobile forms of HM. The biggest excess in all examined areas is fixed for elements of Zn, Mn, Pb.

The research established the concentration content of mobile forms of heavy metals for recreational and industrial areas of Kryvoy Rog in comparison with concentrations of heavy metals in the local background area. There was fixed the abnormal content of Pb in the background section, which is on par with MPC. Significant excess concentrations of Pb and Mn were fixed in all studied areas. It was found that Saksagansky borough has the highest levels of accumulation of heavy metals and environmental and hygienic evaluations.
The phenomenon of unpermissible content of certain metals can be explained by geochemical characteristics of the region

Key words: soil, pollution, heavy metals, mobile forms, recreational and industrial areas, the local background area
 

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RECLAMATION OF DISTURBED SOILS / РЕКУЛЬТИВАЦІЯ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Буньо Л. В., Цвілинюк О. М., Карпин О. Л., Терек О. І. Ферментативна активність нафтозабрудненого ґрунту в кореневій зоні рослин Carex hirta L.

Bunio L. V., Tsvilynjuk O. M., Karpyn O. L., Terek О. І. Enzymatic activity of oil-contaminated soil in the root zone of Carex hirta L. plants

 

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In this study we investigated enzymatic activity in crude oil contaminated soil of Boryslav city and the influence on it Carex hirta L. plant, which were used for phytorecultivation.

Boryslav is unique city where oil extraction conducts directly in the city territory. This has led to a total contamination of soil by oil and oil products. Since recultivation of soil should be safe for the health of city population, the most ecologic way of soil restoration is phytorecultivation.

Carex hirta L. plants are resistant to oil contamination, and thus can be used for phytoremediation of oil polluted soil. Roots of these plants form mycorrhiza. The roots of plants with mycorrhiza, show very high enzymatic activity. At the same time, studies of enzyme activity changes in the plants root area under oil contamination are scarce.

Activity of soil enzymes may serve as a diagnostic parameter of the contamination degree, and in the case of phytoremediation of oil contaminated soil may be the key to understanding the mechanism of natural purification of the soil. Our task was to study the activity of enzymes from the group of oxidoreductases and hydrolases in the rhizosphere of C. hirta L. plants in soil artificially contaminated with crude oil.

We conducted our field research on the territory of Boryslav city. Oil was added in soil in concentration 5 %. C. hirta L. plants were planted 20 days after the oil spill. After 30 days of plant growth we selected soil samples from the rhizosphere and edaphosphere and determined the enzymatic activity.

We have found that oil inhibited most of soil enzymes: catalase, polyphenol oxidase, protease and dehydrogenase activity. The most sensitive to oil pollution appeared dehydrogenase and catalase, their activity was the lowest in comparison with uncontaminated soil. Obviously, the inhibitory effect of oil associated with the presence of toxic components in it, as well as anaerobic conditions of soil that prevent normal passage of redox processes and formation of humic substances in contaminated soils.

However oil pollution led to increased activity of some enzymes, namely – phosphatase and cellulase. Perhaps this activation could appear due to active demise of plant roots tissues in oil polluted soil. Also stimulatory effect on the activity of these enzymes have n- paraffins and cyclic hydrocarbons of oil. Since decomposition of oil between rows occur slower due to anaerobic conditions, and these hydrocarbons remain stable in soil for very long period, this can be another reason for increased activity of the enzymes activity in this area.

C. hirta plants presence in oil polluted soil practically did not effect activity of such enzymes as catalase and polyphenol oxidase. Activity of peroxidase, urease, invertase increased in root zone of plants. Perhaps this is due to the fact that plants improved soil aeration through root growth, which led to cracking of the asphalt cover and flow of air into the soil.

Oil pollution of soil also had different effect on the activity of nitrogen metabolism enzymes. Crude oil had stimulating effect on carboanhydrases. Under crude oil influence phosphatase activity in plants spacing increased, and decreased in the root zone.

Key words: enzymatic activity of soils, crude oil contamination, oxidoreductases, hydrolases, Carex hirta L.
 

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CLASSIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF SOILS / КЛАСИФІКАЦІЯ ТА ОЦІНКА ҐРУНТІВ

 

Kacprzak A., Salamon P. Properties and classification of soils developed from aeolian and flysch materials in the Wieliczka Foothills (Southern Poland)

Кацпжак А., Саламон П. Властивості і класифікація грунтів, що розвиваються з еолових і флішових матеріалів у Pogórze Wielickie (південна Польща)

 

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The paper is focused on the properties of soils developed from relatively shallow loess mantles overlying flysch weathered materials and the role of resulting lithological discontinuities within parent material in shaping soil properties in the marginal area of the Carpathian Foothills. The studied soils were located under mixed forest vegetation in varied geomorphologic context – on relatively flat hilltops and on slopes with varying inclination. The performed analyses comprised the determination of soil texture, also on clay-free basis, pH, content of organic carbon and carbonates as well as the determination of cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The soils were described and classified following the WRB system.

Most of the studied soils show properties resulting from the process of lessivage, expressed in the formation of clay coatings (cutans), changes in soil colour and structure, leading to the origin of fragic horizons. The role of redoximorphic processes related to the high rainfall is also well visible, especially at the boundary of E and Bt horizons and on the contact of loess and flysch regolith, along a lithological discontinuity. The occurrence of lithological discontinuities is detected predominantly based on changes in soil texture and particularly visible when the contents of sand and silt fractions are calculated on the clay-free basis. This shows a marked homogeneity of loess in contrast with a great textural diversity of weathered flysch. Apart from the main discontinuity between loess and weathered flysch, it is also possible to discern textural discontinuities between flysch-derived slope materials (cover beds) and underlying, weathered flysch (regolith) in situ, as well as within the weathered flysch itself. The slope materials (cover beds) occurring under loess mantles and above flysch bedrock owe their genesis to slope processes, predominantly solifluction in the Pleistocene. The existing lithological discontinuities influence also soil physicochemical and chemical properties such as pH, content of carbonates, cation exchange capacity and base saturation, so they have a significant ecological impact.

In the investigated area soil formation and, consequently, taxonomic position depends predominantly on two factors – the thickness of loess material and the inclination of slope. With decreasing slope inclination and increasing thickness of loess soils change from Stagnic Cambisols (Ruptic) through Haplic Stagnosols (Ruptic) and Haplic Stagnosols (Ruptic, Episiltic) to Stagnic Albeluvisols (Ruptic), and where soil profiles are developed entirely in loess materials – Stagnic Albeluvisols.

Key words: Carpathian Foothills, loess, flysch, lithological discontinuities, soil classification, WRB
 

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Смага І. С. Методологічні основи бонітетної оцінки ґрунтів та їх удосконалення

Smaga I. S. Methodological foundations of soil estimation and its improvement

 

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The theoretical and methodological approaches, existing in the national soil science to the definition of object of soil estimation, are analyzed. The appropriateness of the next round of work on the estimation quality of soil Ukraine agro-industrial group of soil as object of soil estimation for consistency with other types of land estimation and with previously obtained results, as well as its advantages over the object of estimation "soil-climate" and "soil-climate-box" or type of soil.

The principles of selection criteria for appraisal of the number of indicators of soil properties and methodical problems when used as a criterion rate of harvest of crops are analyzed.

The measurement standards estimation quality of soil is substantiated. They are estimation of genetic, which are determined parameters stable properties of soil, estimation of agrochemical in reference to fundamental agricultural crops, which calculate across possible harvest culture crop across provision of soil which nutrient elements of plants and generalized index estimation of soil. Last invited to count as the harmonic mean between genetic and agrochemical estimation of soil. To determine the average values of parameters estimation of soil evaluation is proposed to use the harmonic average formula that allows you to objectively consider the law of minimum.

A testing of proposed indicators estimation of quality example sour gleevy soils of Pre-Carpatians with the differentiated type. Proven method of calculation proposed indicators estimation of soil on example the most common groups of soil agro-industrial Storozhinetskiy land area estimated in Chernivtsi region.

The necessity of determining the estimation of genetic in reference agro-industrial group of soil within the land estimation area in relation to the regional benchmark, estimation of agrochemical growth class – the results of agro-ecological monitoring arable soils. It was found that low values of agrochemical estimation growth class in the studied soils reduce the size of the generalized index estimation of soil.

The necessity of taking into account the actual maintenance of soil mineral nutrients plants in determining its estimation of soil. There is an algorithm for calculating the agrochemical estimation of soil based on the value of the resource harvest of winter wheat, which can be obtained from the current more important elements of soil mineral nutrition of plants based on their carry out from the soil by harvest the main and accessory product.

It was proposed to determine the required frequency estimation of soils based on the stability over time of indicators of soil properties which is selected as the criteria of estimation of soil. Genetic estimation of soil indicators for sustainable over time indicators of soil properties (content in the plow layer of humus, physical clay and abyssal horizons of humus) should determine every 10–15 years.

Systematic work for new rounds of agro-ecological monitoring (every 5 years) suggests to use their results on the content of soil mineral nutrients of plants to determine agrochemical estimation of soil and the corresponding correction values of the generalized index estimation of soil.

Key words: object of soil estimation, criteria of estimation of soil, methods of estimation of soil, agro-industrial group of soil, estimation of soil, estimation of genetic, estimation of agrochemical, generalized index estimation of soil
 

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SOIL ZOOLOGY / ҐРУНТОВА ЗООЛОГІЯ

 

Кунах О. Н., Жуков А. В., Балюк Ю. А. Пространственная организация сообщества мезопедо-бионтов урботехнозема

Kunah O. N., Zhukov A. V., Baljuk Ju. A. The spatial organization of the urbanozem mesopedobi-onts

 

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The results of studying of the spatial organization of soil mesofauna of the urbanozem of the grassland within artificial forest planting have been processed by OMI- and RLQ-analysis methods. Researches are spent to June, 1st, 2012 in Oles Gonchar University botanic garden (earlier – territory of park of J.Gagarin, Dnepropetrovsk). The studied plot is situated on the Krasnopostachekaya balka valley talveg (48°25'58.68"С, 35°2'20.44"В). The plot consists of 15 transects directed in a perpendicular manner in relation to the talveg. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m. The coordinates of lower left point have been taken as (0; 0). The plot represents artificial grassland. The vegetation has typically pratum mesotrophic xeromesophilic character (43.24 % – pratantss, 81.08 % – mesotrophes, 64.86 % – xeromesophiles). In each point the soil mesofauna was studied (data presented as L-table); temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, and herbage height were measured (data presented as R-table). Soil-zoological test area had a size of 25×25 cm.

The soil mesofauna gave been found as being presented by 21 species and with total abundance 119.31 ind./m2. In ecological structure of the soil animal community have been found such groups dominant as saprohages, pratants and stepants, gygrophiles, mesotrophocoenomorphes, endogeic topomorphes. The measured edafic characteristics have been shown to play an important role in structurization of an ecological niche of mesopedobionts community. The us-age of morphological or physiological features of animals for an estimation of degree of specific distinctions is applicable for homogeneous taxonomic or ecological groups possessing compa-rable characteristics which also can be interpreted ecologically. The soil mesofauna is character-ized by high taxonomic and ecological diversity of forms and comparing which by morphologi-cal or physiological criteria it is rather inconvenient. Ecological sense of characteristics in dif-ferent groups will be not identical, and the basis for their comparison will be inadequate. There-fore we apply to the description of ecological features ecomorphic analysis of soil animals. The organization of communities of soil animals may be considered at levels of an investigated point, a biogeocenosis, a landscape and regional level. Actually, on the basis of landscape-ecological distribution of species in ecological space their accessory to ecological groups – an ecomorphes is established. The regular ratio an ecomorphes in these functional groups will be reflexion of their organizational structure and an ecological diversity. The obtained data testifies to justice of the come out assumption. It is important to notice that fact that the functional groups allocated in ecological space by means of the RLQ-analysis, show regular patterns of spatial variability.

Local functional groups are characterized by ecological characteristics which reflect in terms one ecomorphes of property of others, occupying higher hierarchical position. Ascertaining of spatial heterogeneity of the animal community and determinancy of properties of an ecological niche by soil factors is important result however for understanding of the nature of heterogeneity the spatial variant of ecomorphic the analysis with RLQ-analysis application has been processed. Within comparatively uniform field the spatial differentiation of the animal community on functional groups has been found. The reality of their existence proves to be true not only statistically, but that is especially important, substantial interpretation of ecomorphic markers of groups interrelation and indicators of ecological properties of soil as inhabitancies. The variation of environmental properties within microsites leads to rearrangement of ecological frame of the soil animal community. Heterogeneity of a soil body and vegetation mosaic form patterns of the spatial organisation of the soil animal.

Key words: soil mesofauna, ecological niche, spatial ecology, ecomorphes
 

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FOREST SOIL SCIENCE / ЛІСОВЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО

 

Мальцев Є. І., Негруля Д. М. Альгофлора лісової підстилки насаджень парку-пам’ятки садово-паркового мистецтва «Лісопитомник»

Maltsev Eu. I., Nehrulya D. M. Algal flora of forest floor in plantings of park-monument landscape art «Forest Nursery»

 

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One characteristic of the twentieth century is the steady increase in the urban population with the simultaneous growth of urban areas. The result of the acceleration of urbanization is increasing recreational pressure on surrounding natural areas. One possible solution is the creation of sylvan parks as a suburban area of forest designated for urban recreation area. Often the creation of a sylvan park accompanied by a continuous plowing area and the creation of artificial forest plantings. With changes of plant-edificator will be significant changes of all phytocenosis, particularly in algae communities, where to the typical drought-tolerant and shade-tolerant species will join moisture-loving representatives. The aim was to assess the environmental features of algae communities in forest floor different plantings of Melitopol Sylvan Park.

In general, in the forest floor of pine planting "Forest nursery" marked 20 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 15 (75 %), Cyanophyta – 3 (15 %), Bacillariophyta – 1 (5 %) and Xanthophyta – 1 (5 %). Among the leading families of the greatest number of species (3) belonged to Phormidiaceae and Myrmeciaceae. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions.

Total in forest floor of silver-chain planting marked 15 species of algae with 4 divisions: Chlorophyta – 9 (60 %), Bacillariophyta – 3 (20 %), Cyanophyta – 2 (13 %) і Xanthophyta – 1 (7 %). Systematic structure of list species determine 4 family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (1,4): Phormidiaceae, Myrmeciaceae, Chlorellaceae and Klebsormidiaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime.

In the forest floor of pine and silver-chain plantings in Melitopol local monument of landscape architecture "Forest nursery" found 28 species of algae with 4 divisions, which are dominated by green algae – 20 species (71 %), that exceed diatoms and blue-green – 3 species (22 %), and xanthophytes – 2 (7 %). Among the investigated forest floors largest number of algal species marked in pine planting – 20, against silver-chain planting – 15 species. List of leading families headed Myrmeciaceae, Klebsormidiaceae and Phormidiaceae. From an ecological point of view algal flora forest floor of studied plantings characterized by a predominance of species of soil-inhabiting algae from Ch-life forms, which is typical xerophyte. Analysis list of the species in relation to phytoceonosis showed little content forest species, indicating the complexity of the processes forest planting in the steppe. Seasonal dynamics of algal species composition indicated an increase in the number of species in algae communities from spring to autumn.

Key words: forest floor, algae, algae communities, Sylvan Park
 

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REMOTE METHODS OF SOIL INVESTIGATION / ДИСТАНЦІЙНІ МЕТОДИ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Черный С. Г., Абрамов Д. А. Определение параметров линии почв черноземов Правобережной Украины с помощью спектральных спутниковых снимков «Ландсат-7»

Chornyy S. G., Abramov D. О. Determination of soil line parameters of Right-Bank Ukraine chornozems by means of «Landsat-7» spectral satellite images

 

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Identification of soil properties and soil processes using remote sensing satellite methods is necessary technology in the procedures of soil mapping and soil monitoring, by intensive development of various processes of soil degradation – erosion, salinization, solonetzification, underflooding, etc.

A spectral reflectance is important color characteristic of the bare soil. Spectral reflectance can be related to site-specific soil conditions within a field, especially organic C content, mineralogical composition of the parent material, as well as, CaCO3 soluble salts, oxides of iron content, etc.

New interpretation of spectral reflectance data is the concept of the soil line - linear relationship between the near-infrared (NIR) and red (R) reflectance of bare soil as characterized by slope (β1) and intercept parameters (β0). For identification of soil line parameters Right-Bank Ukraine black soil (“chornozem”) a data of multispectral scanning by American satellite «Landsat-7» was used. Five scenes of 2011 and 2012 spring were used. Analysis of the structure of crop area in the region showed that the end of March - beginning of May is the most favorable period for remote sensing of the soil surface, as during this period the soil as not covered agricultural vegetation.

The presence of vegetation on the surface of the soil and its density is generally determined through various vegetation indices. The most often used indicators - NDVI, RVI, NRVI. The analysis of the published data showed that the critical values of these indices, showing the almost complete absence of vegetation on the surface of the soil following - to NDVI = -0,05 - +0,05, RVI = +0,90 - +1,10, NRVI = -0,06 - +0,05. Using these criteria 752 pixel with the bare soil were selected. For the southern and ordinary chornozem a linear equation of the soil line had the coefficient of determination (r2) 0.89 (n=306) and 0.92 (n=446), respectively. A value by slope (β1) for southern chornozem 1.05 and ordinary chornozem 1.01 were corresponded. The intercept parameter (β0) had a value -3.83 and -3.68, respectively.

Organic C content, which, as it is known, determines the reflectance of the soil surface in the red and (or) the near-infrared range, is not only the color basis for southern chоrnozems soil line have shown. The soil line parameters of southern chоrnozem by the combination of organic C content, qualitative composition of soluble salts and presence solonetzicity in the top soil’s layer was defined.

At the same time, the parameters of ordinary chоrnozems soil line, against background monotonous bedrock, only the organic C content (humus content) determining. The change under the influence of soil erosion, when plowing lower horizons with low content of humus led to the clarification of the soil surface the parameters of the line soils.

A strong similarity of southern and ordinary chornozems soil lines visual analysis shows however. For a quantitative estimation of differences (similarity) equations describing line soils ordinary and southern chornozems the following procedure was performed. Randomly selected arguments allowed simulating by these equations and getting two sample values NIR separately for southern chornozems and separately for ordinary chornozems. Then was determined by the degree of the differences (and similarities) of these samples using the nonparametric criterion χ2 (Pearson criterion). Calculations showed that the empirical value of criterion χ2 (0,62) much less than its theoretical (standard) values at 95% probability (12,59, at v=6). I.e., differences at the specified level of significance between samplings not observed.

Use of Pearson criterion and graphical analysis to admit the possibility of obtaining for both subtypes of chornozem the single soil line. The generalizing soil line has the following parameters: r2 = 0.88 (n = 752), β1 = 1.01, β0 = -2.96. Line soils with these settings and allows its use for the identification of chоrnozems in satellite images, use in procedures mapping of soil cover, as well as to make assessment of the degree of heterogeneity of the soil cover.

Key words: soil line, multispectral scanning, vegetation indices, soil erosion, southern chоrnozem, ordinary chоrnozem
 

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DISCUSSIONS / ДИСКУСІЇ

 

Польчина С. М., Нікорич В. А., Шиманський В. Пропозиції щодо удосконалення системи індексації ілювіальних ґрунтових горизонтів

Pol’chyna S. M., Nikorych V. A., Szymański W. Proposals to improve designation system of Illuvial soil horizons

 

Abstract (Show preview in english)



Problems of actual designation of illuvial genetic horizons in Ukrainian soil science were analyzed.

It was found that the current system does not reflect all the subtleties of illuvial horizon and it is not in accordance with the current trends in international soil science. On the basis of the brown-podzolic gleyed soils of the Precarpathians, which are being studied for along time, it is stated that modification of designation is very necessary. Possible schemes of these soil profiles, taking into account of their morphogenetic variability, are offered for discussion. In addition it is proposed for discussion system of designation of illuvial horizons, which will take into consideration not only their illuvial character, but also kind of illuvial material. It is recommended the necessity of updating system of designation of illuvial horizons using superscript, which indicate their origin:

І t – argic (texture);

І fe,al – spodic;

І h – sombric;

І к – calcic;

Sl (or I n) – natric.

The authors hope that the proposed debate will be continued and this paper will encourage discussion about this problem in the Ukrainian national soil science community.

Key words: illuvial horizons, horizons indexing standards, brownish-podzolic soils
 

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REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗІЇ

Травлеев А. П., Горбань В. А.
Лисецкий Ф. Н. Современные проблемы эрозиоведения / Ф. Н. Лисецкий, А. А. Светличный, С. Г. Черный. – Белгород : Константа, 2012. – 456 с.
Travleyev A. P., Gorban V. A.
Lisetskii F. N., Svetlitchnyi A. A., Chornyy S. G. Recent developments in erosion science. – Belgorod : Konstanta, 2012. – 456 p.

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Ивашов А. В.
Демидов А. А. Пространственная агроэкология и рекультивация земель / А. А. Демидов, А. С. Кобец, Ю. И. Грицан, А. В. Жуков. – Д., 2013. – 369 с.
Ivashov A. V.
Demidov A. A., Kobets A.S., Gritsan Yu. I., Zhukov A. V. Spatial agroecology and land recultivation. – Dnipropetrovsk, 2013. – 560 p.

 
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