2016, Vol. 17. #1-2


THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES OF SOIL SCIENCE /ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ТА ПРИКЛАДНІ ПИТАННЯ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВА


 

Medvedev V. V. Agrizem as a new 4-dimensional polygenetic formation

Медведев В. В. Агрозем как новое 4-мерное полигенетическое образование

               

DOI:10.15421/041601

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Morphological (horizontal and vertical profiles of soils), micromorphological (mainly, anisotropism of aggregates and pores), physical properties (structure, density, differential porosity and their transformation for an appreciable length of time – time profiles), features of formation of descending (preferential) and ascending waterstreams were investigated. Chernozems (typical, ordinary, southern) were objects of the research. In the article the results of comparative researches of the soils which are in various conditions of use – from absolutely reserved virgin soil to variants in industrial and experimental conditions are stated. On a virgin soil there are aggregates of mainly isometric roundish form. On an arable land anisotropic lumps (blocks) of the wrong form, the size, as a rule, more than 10 (20) mm, and silting structure dominate. At tillage characteristic stability for a virgin soil pore spaces is broken, the length of a time of one diameter decreases. Pores A are filled with microaggregates and thindispersed not aggregated material. On a virgin soil the density at its analysis in vertical and time aspects throughout 30 years remained a constant. On an arable land, since 30 to depth of 60–80 cm density authentically above (it, most likely, forrow bottom). Under the influence of long tillage mobility of thindispersed parts increase, its reorientation to a place and periodic descending migration from horizon Н (A) in horizon of Hp (АВ1) is observed. Essential feature of ploughed up and especially irrigated soil in comparison with the virgin consists in distinct display of the plastic deformation which are at the bottom of raised consolidation of soil. The structurally-modular structure of soils in the conditions of long arable land in comparison with a virgin soil considerably changes: the quantity agronomical valuable fraction, its water stability, mechanical durability decreases. On an arable land preferential streams of a moisture (or a failure filtration on large pores) are formed. The executed researches of soils in the conditions of a virgin soil and an arable land allow to ascertain that the mode of receipt and the moisture expense, aeration, growth of roots, exchange processes and in general ecological and productive functions on these objects are various. On an arable land soilformation process gets other orientation. As a result of researches essential distinctions between natural and ploughed up soil are established for a long time, and distinctions have appeared so essential that have allowed to confirm – under the influence of long agricultural use the natural soil is transformed in agrizem, has essentially other properties and modes and can quite be called as new polygenetic (natural-anthropogenous) formation. Till now existence of agrizem remains a debatable question and that it was really recognised new soil and has got «the citizenship» rights additional proofs are necessary. Features of agrizem as new soil in comparison with a virgin soil: anisotropism, bimodality of pore spaces, consolidation of soil aggregates, seasonal and long-term dynamics of density and properties, infringement of convertibility of soils owing to loss and labilization of organic substance, occurrence of new horizontal, vertical and time profiles, aridization and biodiversity reduction. Agrizem loses ability to restore inherent in it modal, characteristic for natural analogue, parametres. Owing to strengthening of spatial heterogeneity for agrizem gradual transition from continuality to step-type behaviour of a soil cover, and as a whole – local easing of sod – with reference to chernozems – soil formation process is characteristic. Agrizem as the new type of soil demands reflexion in the nomenclature and classification, the account in division into districts and the differentiated system of use.

Polygenetic is a formation principal cause of agrizem. Agrizem – a product of natural, economic (industrial, technological) and social factors. Today the person and its activity on the earth becomes the leading factor of formation of new soils.
Key words: agrizem, a microstructure, properties, profiles, modes
 

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Chornyy S. G., Abramov D. A. The monitoring of southern chernozem soil  humus content with using multispectral satellite images Landsat:  spatial and temporal aspects

Чорний С. Г., Абрамов Д. А. Моніторинг вмісту гумусу у чорноземі південному з використанням багатоспектральних знімків супутників Landsat: просторові та тимчасові аспекти

               

DOI:10.15421/041602

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Чорний С. Г., Абрамов Д. А. Моніторинг вмісту гумусу у чорноземі південному з використанням багатоспектральних знімків супутників Landsat: просторові та тимчасові аспекти
For rational use of soils it is necessary to possess exact information on soil properties. The traditional methods of monitoring of soils and (or) their separate properties based on local, one-time supervision don’t give an adequate assessment of a current state of a soil cover it should be noted. Transition to spatio-temporal methods with use of modern geoinformation and space technologies is necessary. Remote satellite methods of soil monitoring gain fast distribution, owing to the efficiency, a certain objectivism and relative low cost now, and also because of unique opportunities of one-time coverage by the images received from big height, enough territories, big on the area. For the development of remote monitoring chernozems southern used materials of multispectral scanning multispectral camera ETM + ( «Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus»), which is on board the satellite «Landsat-7» (data of 2006, 2010, 2012) and OLI («Operational Land Imager»), which is on board the satellite «Landsat-8»(data 2015).

The information obtained from them is unified from the point of view of preservation of geometry, calibration, a covering, spectral characteristics, quality of the image and availability of data, despite various carriers of devices ETM+ and OLI. The composite image which has been received from three cloudless satellite images of spring of 2012 (three terms of shooting – 21.04, 30.04, 05.05) has allowed to make the correlation analysis of extent of influence of maintenance of organic matter in a layer of soil of 0–10 cm at a brightness with various spectral channels of the camera ETM+. Such analysis has shown that the closest connection exists between the content of soil organic matter and brightness of the second (green), the third (red) and the fourth (the neighbor infrared) spectral channels. From them three, the greatest value of correlation has dependence between the content of soil organic matter (humus) and brightness of the red spectral channel (r=-0,32). For the purpose of spatio-temporal interpretation of the equation of multiple regressions, 20 agro landscapes in different parts of the Right-bank steppe of Ukraine (The Mykolayiv district and Zhovtnevy district of the Mykolayiv oblast) have been selected. For each agro landscapes was defined content of soil organic matter in the soil using Landsat 7 satellite images taken in 2006 and in 2010 and Landsat images 8 for 2015.

The made estimates of maintenance of soil organic matter have shown on processes of fast loss of humus in all layers of soil. Annual losses of soil organic matter in a layer of 0–10 cm from 2006 for 2015 have made 0,16 % in a year, in a layer of 0–50 cm of about 0,13 % in a year, and in a layer of 0–100 cm at 0,10 % in a year. The irrational structure of sown areas and distribution of wind and water erosion processes is the reason of this sad process.
Key words: monitoring of soils, chernozem, multispectral scanning, humus, loss of soil organic matter
 

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Dmytruk Y. M. Ecological-evolutionary analysis of lithium content in soils

Дмитрук Ю. М. Еколого-еволюційний аналіз вмісту літію у ґрунтах

               

DOI:10.15421/041603

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The point is that investigation of geochemistry and behavior of Lithium in Ukraine’s soils is been rather exceptional. We have analyzed the content of Lithium in soils: modern and buried under the ramparts of various ages. The research territory includes Prut-Dniester and Prut-Siret interfluvial. Most often there are Phaeozems (Luvic Phaeozem, or Mollic Gleysol or Eutric Gleysol) and Chernozems (Luvic Chernozem or Chernic Chernozem). Buried soils are located directly near the modern background soils, so the differences between them are the result of evolution of the background soils during burial (the screening) after the construction of ramparts. On the Podvirna site current landscapes are wood and meadow-steppe; in the past, subboreal stage, were probably closer to the steppe; buried soil – Chernozem typical with a little profile, in the modern of soil structure prevails Luvic Phaeozem. The sites Ridkivtsi and Grushivka are characterized forest landscapes and in the past on those areas dominated wood-meadow landscapes. At present prevailing types of soils are Phaeozems or Gleysol.

Soil samples have taken for the genetic horizons. After drying and preparing of soils in them had performed analytical determination of total content (Nitrate extract, followed by evaporation of hydrogen peroxide) of Lithium and its mobile forms (ammonium acetate-extract with pH = 4,8). The results of analyzes had processed by using statistical and mathematical testing based on the program «Statistica 6.0».

Our obtained results are indicating background of total Lithium content, which ranges from 8,70 to 33,5 mg∙kg-1 and its average amount was 22,3±6,01 mg∙kg-1; amplitude quantity of Lithium mobile forms is between 0,20 to 2,60 mg∙kg-1, with an average content of 0,60±0,57 mg∙kg-1. The mean of total Lithium content of all soils with buried soils in particular are decreased from Podvirna site (27,4 mg∙kg-1) to the site Ridkivtsi (22,8 and 26,3 mg∙kg-1, accordingly) and site Grushivka (20,0 and 19,1 mg∙kg-1, accordingly), while the number of mobile forms changed significantly from substantial Podvirne hospital (1,43 mg∙kg-1) to the hospital Grushivka (0,83 and 0,91 mg∙kg-1, respectively) and hospital Ridkivtsi (0,44 and 0,79 mg∙kg-1, appropriately). In the majority of background soils we had discovered humus-eluvial-illuvial redistribution, sometimes - eluvial-illuvial redistribution. It is important to know that we had not observed high Lithium content in the parent rock of soils (except for two sections of the site Ridkivtsi with discussion rather recognition of the parent rock of the profile). This is demonstrating the determining influence of pedogenesis on the redistribution of chemical elements in the of soils. Actually, Lithium has often accumulated in the upper humus horizons (as a result of the impact of organic matter and of soil biota as a whole) or in the horizons of clay accumulation. To crown it all pedogenesis fundamentally has changing features of the vertical distribution of Lithium content. Concerning future research is necessity of application of isotopic analysis to identify the characteristics of different ages soils.

Key words: Lithium, soil, modern and buried, total content, mobile form, soil profile
 

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Smaga I. S. Diagnostic problems of elementary soil processes and profile-differentiated soils of the Precarpathian region

Смага І. С. Проблеми діагностики елементарних ґрунтових процесів і профільно-диференційованих ґрунтів у Передкарпатті

               

DOI:10.15421/041604

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Present condition, scientific concepts and ways of further development of diagnosis problem of elementary soil processes and genetic nature profiled-differentiated gleyed soils of the Pre-Carpathian region, known as brownish-podzolic, brownsoil-podzolic and sod-podzolic, based on stable indicators of soil properties are studied. Eluvial-illuvial differentiation nature of the soil profile of the studied soils is founded.

The aim of research was to develop criteria for the diagnosis of elementary soil processes and genetic nature profiled-differentiated soil deposits of Ciscarpathia and discovering of the parameters of the relevant indicators of soil properties. The soil profile with his characteristic set of genetic horizons and morphological characteristics can result from taking place of both various set (kit) of ESP and of varying intensity of individual processes (complex ESP). Formation of genetic soil type is caused by the course of the profile forming (main) process with the possible participation of several (related) processes.

An important condition for the diagnostic determination of profile-differentiated soils in the Ciscarpathia is the search for reliable diagnostic criteria for basic elementary soil processes (ESP) which play a crucial role in the genesis and determine their macromorphological characteristics: lessivage, podzolisation, gleying and eluvial-gleying processes.

Diagnostic criteria of the elluvial processes resulted in gross chemical composition of the soil (molecular ratio), particle size distribution (loss sludge) and mineralogy silt fraction (montmorillonite content) were tested. The criteria for establishing genetic origin of the Pre-Carpathian soils, podzolization and eluvial-gley processes detection and their possible parameters were suggested. Followed the impact of the prevailing development of individual creating profile elementary soil processes (podzolization, eluvial-gley and gleying) by laboratory simulation modeling of soil regimes that are conducive to them (washing, water stagnant and contrast) for evaluative indicators of acid-base soil buffer and made the conclusions about the possibility of these processes isolation. Eluvial-illuvial differentiation of Ciscarpathia typical soils is coursed by passage of profile forming process of podzolisation (acid hydrolysis, podzolic) and related from the group of eluvial - eluvial-gleying process and lessivage. They are diagnosed by the gross grain and chemical composition of the soil and the content of montmorillonite. Brown soil forming processes have a significant impact on the formation of humus status and physical and chemical properties of the studied soil.

Substantiated differences forming the group composition of humus and fractional composition of humic acids of soils formed underbrownsoil formation processes from the sod soils type (the ratio of humic acids to fulvic acid, gumatcalcium content, optical density of humic substances).

Advantages and disadvantages of using quantitative identification criteria - profile humus accumulation factor in the genetic diagnosis of soil type are analyzed.

In the conditions of wash and contrasting modes of moisture, causing the priority development processes of podzolisation and gleye- eluvial respectively a similar trend of formation of acid-base buffer capacity of soil and similar parameters of evaluating indicators within the soil profile are observed. It is impossible to separate the processes of podzolisation and gleye- eluvial using the indicators of acid-base buffering. Describing of profile structure, morphological and genetic traits of genetic horizons, the profile distribution of acid-base buffering indicators (even without the use of criteria based on gross chemical and grain composition and content of clay minerals) help to clear identify brownish-podzolic gley soils of Ciscarpathia.

Key words: elementary soil procesess, Pre-Carpathians, brounish podzolic soil,sod-podzolic soils, genesis, diagnostic criteria, the gross chemical composition, humus status
 

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Nikorych V. A., Chervonogrodska I. V. Colouristic criteria of S-matrix of the Precarpathians brownish-podzolic gleyed soils

Нікорич В. А., Червоногродська І. В. Колористичні критерії S-матриці бурувато-підзолистих оглеєних ґрунтів Передкарпаття

               

DOI: 10.15421/041605

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The scientific literature dedicated to the analysis of peculiarities of the soils colouring and interconnection the genetic horizons colour as well as separate morphological elements with their properties have been analyzed. The identification of colour of genetic horizons in 20 profiles of brownish-podzolic gleyed soils of Ukrainian and Polish Precarpathians has been conducted. The colour of investigated genetic horizons and separate morphological elements was determined according to both national and international systems. The analysis of the appropriateness of national approaches rejecting and usage of the Munsell scale as a primary method for determining the soil samples colour has been carried out. The results of the survey of the respondents with different professional training ascertained that visual determination of colour range within morphological description of the soil is completely subjective. The correctness of procedure depends on the experience of soil scientists and colour homogeneity of the soil sample. Using of the Munsell scale reduces the errors in the determination by 70–80 %, which allows recommending the very approach as the principal one for the field descriptions. Change of the investigated soils colour depending on the level of humidity has been established. The peculiarity of soil mass colour range depending on the aggregation and fractions size has been found out.

Based on the colouristic analysis it has been confirmed that chemical and mineralogical composition is the main factor of heterogeneity of the investigated soils horizons colour. It has been found out that heterogeneity of the colour range, and the appearing of bleached zones (as the result of iron removing) and fine dust on the surface of the aggregations is associated with gleying processes, impulse redox regime and metamorfization of soil mass.

It has been established that interdependence between the complex of statistical and fractal parameters, which indicates the relative optical heterogeneity of architectonics of the investigated soils ultra thin cuts which are characterized by optical heterogeneity on the macro-level. The processes of morphogenesis of self-similar elements of their architectonics cause the asymmetry and fluctuations of relative data and increasing of the half-width of the autocorrelation functions of orientation tomograms. Red and green shades are shown to be the basic components of the sample colour. Red ones are determined by red colour pigments, and the combination of red and green shades provides the formation of yellow tones.

The possibility of data conversion from the Munsell system into the CIE-L*a*b* system with minor deviations has been shown. 2,5Y5 / 4 in Munsell system corresponds to the following data in the CIE-L*a*b* system: L* = 41,23; a* = 5,59; b* = 20,06 (manual calculation) and L* = 41,22, a* = 4,97, b* = 19,44 (automatic transfer using the computer program Munsell Conversion 4.01).

Key words: colouristic criteria, brownish-podzolic soils, Munsell scale, CIE-L*a*b*
 

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Gorban V. A., Strygina T. A., Mandrygelia M. V. Features of structural-aggregate condition of forest chernozems in Hlyboky ravine

Горбань В. А., Стригіна Т. А., Мандригеля М. В. Особливості структурно-    агрегатного складу чорноземів лісових байраку Глибокого

               

DOI: 10.15421/041606

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As it is known, the structure of the soil, as well as the qualitative characteristics of its units (size, water resistance, mechanical stability) is largely dependent on the granulometric structure, the availability of sufficient organic matter, vigorous activity of soil microorganisms and mesofauna, development of root systems of plants. The formation of soil structure is a complex physical-chemical process, which results in the adhesion of soil particle-size fractions of humic substances with a corresponding impact of absorbed cations. Therefore, the shape of the structural units can serve as a diagnostic feature that reflects the genetic features and the natural fertility of the soil. Soil structure is a dynamic property and may be changed under the influence of agricultural use and environmental factors. The stability of soils to human impacts depends on their genetic characteristics, factors and soil conditions. In particular, the greatest impact on the structural state of the soil creates a progressive dehumufication.

At present the main features of the research focuses on the establishment of a structural condition of chernozems, used in agriculture, while at the same time, structural and aggregate state of chernozems under forest vegetation remains little explored. Accordingly, the aim of our work is to establish the characteristics of the structural condition of forest chernozems that formed in a ravine oak steppe zone of Ukraine.

The object of study is based on the soil of Hlyboky Ravine, which is located near the village Andriyivka (Novomoskovsk district, Dnipropetrovsk region). Soil samples were collected in a 5 test areas: the first test area is located on the steppe virgin soil between the field and marge a northern slope, the second – in the middle third of the northern slope, the third – on the flat areas of the thalweg, the fourth – in the middle third of the slope of southern exposure, the fifth – on virgin steppe between the field and marge slope of southern exposure.

The research was carried out by sieve method in the modification of N. I. Savvinov.

As a result of the investigations it was found that the optimal aggregate state characterized by the surface horizons of the soils, which are dominated by the fraction size of 2–1 and 3–2 mm. The maximum content of agronomically valuable fractions revealed in the horizon H1el southern exposure, in which the structural factor is 30.2 %. The most favorable conditions for the formation of water-resistant structures are typical for the northern and southern exposure of the Ravine. The least favorable conditions for the formation of water-resistant aggregates different northern edge. Minimum variability in terms of structure coefficient among the studied soils characteristic of the soil and the northern edge of northern exposure, and the maximum – for the southern exposure of soil. The most important soil factors which determine the peculiarities of structural-aggregate state of the soils are the eluvial-illuvial processes. Forest chernozems have a very good structural and aggregate state.

Key words: forest chernozems, soil structure, aggregate state, the content of fractions
 

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SOIL CHEMISTRY /ХІМІЯ ҐРУНТІВ


 

Miroshnychenko N.  N., Kutz О. A. Selective absorption of heavy metals by soil and humic acids at different pH levels

Мірошниченко М. М., Куц О. А. Селективність поглинання важких металів ґрунтом та гуміновими кислотами за різних рівнів рН
               

DOI: 10.15421/041607

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Studying processes of sorption-desorption of heavy metals from soil and its individual components allow to predict long-term effects under conditions of multielement contamination. Cations of heavy metals are showing competitive relationship due to their specific adsorption by components of the soil absorption complex, in particular humic acids. Interaction of chernozem podzolized heavy loam, isolated preparation of humic acids and soil residue after its removal with the solution which contain sulphates of Zn, Cd, Ni, Co and Cu in equal ratio were simulated at different pH levels. The task of research was to compare selective absorption of some heavy metals in soil and humic acids at pH values from 3 to 9. The experiment was performed by mixing 10 g of soil material or 0.1 g of humic acid with 100 ml of buffer solution, adding 10 ml 0.01 n equal mixture of Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu and 2-hour exposure. Humic acids were extracted from this soil by 0.1 n NaOH after decalcification using 0.05 n H2SO4. Crystalline Copper sulphate, Zinc, Nickel, Cobalt, Cadmium were used to prepare the solution level of heavy metals. Ammonium acetate-buffer solutions with different pH (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0) were obtained by varying the ratio CH3СOOH and NH4OH.

The experiment showed that competitive relationship between heavy metal in soil and humic acids. Copper has the highest specificity adsorption, Cobalt – the smallest. Under acidic and strongly acidic reaction content of Zn, Cd, Ni in equilibrium solution is close enough. The absorption of copper was increased by 50 % from strongly acidic to neutral reaction. Under alkaline conditions Cobalt and Copper were practically absent in the solution.

Has been found that the absorption of heavy metals by soil decreases in sequence: Cu, Zn > Cd, Ni > Co. The selectivity of the absorption of heavy metals by humic acids was less marked, but the ability to sorption has the similar sequence: Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Co. The residue of soil after removal of humic acids has a high affinity for copper ions, which was absorbed twice from each other metals. Has been proved experimentally that selective adsorption of heavy metals in soil significantly depends on the pH, decreasing under acidic and strongly acidic conditions where hydrogen is successfully competing with them for exchange places in soil absorption complex. Deviation from the equivalent absorption (20 %) of each heavy metal in soil accounted for 15.0–26.0 % in acidic pH and 1.6–45.4 % in alkaline pH. After the interaction of heavy metals with humic acids in the most acidic medium fluctuations content elements in the equilibrium solution was 15.7–25.3 %, while the highest pH 11.0–26.7 %. Overall, the decrease of sorption capacity for humic acids elements can be placed in the following order: Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Co. This sequence is saved by a narrow ratio solution: adsorbent. Thus, under condition of polyelement contamination migration of Cobalt in soil may be more intensive than Zink, Cadmium, Nickel and a lot more than Copper, especially in alkaline pH.

Key words: soil, humic acids, heavy metals, absorption, pH
 

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LAND RECLAMATION / РЕКУЛЬТИВАЦІЯ ЗЕМЕЛЬ


Zverkovsky V. M., Zubkova O. S. Dynamics of mine  rocks and artificial soils agrochemical characteristics under the impact of long-term reclamation

Зверковський В. М., Зубкова О. С. Зміни агрохімічних  властивостей шахтних порід та штучних ґрунтів під впливом довготривалої рекультивації

               

DOI: 10.15421/041608

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The agrochemical characteristics of mine rocks and artificial soils of forest recultivation plot № 1 of «Pavlogradska» mine were studied. The quantitative indicators of humus, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen content of the soil and mine rocks samples were described. Changes of agrochemical characteristics of mine rocks and artificial soils, that occur as a result of long-term reclamation and exert an impact on forests suitability and silvicultural effect, were ascertained.

Variants of artificial soils, created on the experimental forest recultivation plot, have qualitative differences from natural etalon soils, disturbed soils and differences between themselves.

During the creation of various soil constructions in the process of recultivation it is often not taken into account the possible distant consequences that arise in connection with the dynamic features of the climate, topography, lithology, hydrology and other indicators of technogenic landscapes. Due to the functioning of these soil constructions there are significant changes in physical properties and processes, occurring in the remediation root layer, therefore there are a number of issues related to the further evolution of these structures. In this connection a studying of properties and processes in the artificial soils and an analysis of its current state and evolution prognosis become relevant, with a glance of targeted orientation of recultivation layer constructs and characteristics of specific conditions.

The aim of the research is an investigation of agrochemical characteristics of bulk soils and an assessment of its forests suitability on the forest recultivation plot of «Pavlogradska» main, with an area of 3.2 hectares, where different constructions of forest plantations are being tested since 1976 on the different versions of artificial soils.

The novelty of the work lies in that the findings show the dynamics of artificial soils properties under the influence of long-term biological remediation measures.

The humus state of a soil is a complex of morphological traits, common stocks, properties of organic matter and processes of its creation, transformation and migration in the soil profile. This is a fundamental property of soil because it determines the variety of fertility factors. The content of organic matter in mine rocks and artificial soils ranges from 0,15±0,02 (sand) to 6,25±0,08 % (mine rock). However despite the fact that the amount of organic matter in the mine rocks is high, it is a part of the denatured organic compounds, which are not available for free mineralization.

Nitrogen is a necessary element for plant development and its soil content determines the level of soil fertility. The analysis showed that the amount of nitrogen ranges from very low in mine rocks to heightened in chernozem loams.

The most important biogenic elements also include phosphorus and potassium, which are essential nutrients for plants. Phosphorus and potassium availability is ranging from low in mine rocks to very high in chernozem loams. Also a decrease of potassium and phosphorus content down the soil profile is observed in different artificial soil variants, which correlates with a decrease of plant roots quantity with depth.

The most relevant area of recultivation for steppe zone is forestry, in which environmentally hazardous areas are planted with reclamation forest cultures.

However, it should be taken into account that creation of artificial forests in steppe zone is a measure associated with certain difficulties, particularly on the zonal chernozem soils. Even greater difficulties encountered in anthropogenic degradation of a substrate with a deterioration of its physicochemical and agrochemical properties in industrial use of lands, which should be considered in the forest land reclamation.
Key words: recultivation, reclamation, mine rock, artificial soil, agrochemical properties, humus, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen
 

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